dhē- / Indo-European roots


To set, put.

Oldest form *dheh1-, becoming *dhē-.

Derivatives include deed, doom, fashion, defeat, feckless, sacrifice, satisfy, face, synthesis.

I. Basic form *dhē-.
1. Suffixed form *dhē-ti-, "thing laid down or done, law, deed" deed; indeed from Old English dǣd, doing, deed, from Germanic *dēdiz.
2. Suffixed form *dhē-k-. theca, tick3; amphithecium, apothecary, apothecium, bibliotheca, bodega, boutique, cleistothecium, endothecium, perithecium from Greek thēkē, receptacle.
3. Basic form *dhē-. bard2, purdah from Old Persian dā-, to place.
4. Suffixed form *dhē-to-, set down, created, in Old Iranian compound *khvatō-dāta- (see s(w)e-)
II. O-grade form *dhō-.
1. do1; fordo from Old English dōn, to do, from Germanic *dōn.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-men-. abdomen from Latin abdōmen, belly, abdomen, perhaps "part placed away, concealed part" (ab-, away; see apo-)
3. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-mo-. a. doom from Old English dōm, judgment (< "thing set or put down"); b. -dom from Old English -dōm, abstract suffix indicating state, condition, or power; c. Old Norse -dōmr, condition, in compound hōrdōmr (see kā-); d. duma, dumka from Russian Duma, Duma, from a Germanic source akin to Gothic dōms, judgment; e. deem from Old English dēman, to judge, from Germanic denominative dōmjan. a-e all from Germanic dōmaz.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *dhō-t- in compound *sakro-dhōt- (see sak-)
III. Zero-grade form *dhə-.
1. a. Prefixed form *kom-dhə-. abscond, incondite, recondite, sconce2 from Latin condere, to put together, establish, preserve (*kom, together; see kom); b. prefixed and suffixed form *kom-dh(ə)-yo-. condiment, salmagundi from Latin condīre, to season, flavor; c. compound *kred-dhə- (see kerd-); d. compound suffixed form *gwr̥ə-dh(ə)-o- (see gwerə-2).
2. Suffixed zero-grade form dhə-k-. a. -facient, fact, faction1, -faction, factitious, factitive, factor, factory, faena, fashion, feasible, feat1, feature, fetish, -fic, -fy, hacienda; affair, affect1, affect2, affection, amplify, artifact, artifice, beatific, benefaction, benefic, benefice, beneficence, benefit, chafe, comfit, confect, confetti, counterfeit, defeasance, defeat, defect, deficient, discomfit, edifice, edify, effect, efficacious, efficient, facsimile, factotum, feckless, forfeit, infect, justify, malefactor, malfeasance, manufacture, misfeasance, modify, mollify, nidify, notify, nullify, officinal, orifice, perfect, petrify, pluperfect, pontifex, prefect, proficient, profit, putrefy, qualify, rarefy, rectify, refect, refectory, rubefacient, sacrifice, satisfy, spinifex, suffice, sufficient, surfeit, tubifex, tumefacient, vivify from Latin facere (< *fak-yo-), to do, make, and Latin combining form -fex (< *-fak-s), "maker"; b. façade, face, facet, facial, facies; deface, efface, surface from Latin derivative faciēs, shape, face (< "form imposed on something"); c. office from Latin compound officium (< *opi-fici-om), service, duty, business, performance of work (*opi-, work; see op-); d. further suffixed form *dhə-k-li-. facile, facilitate, faculty, difficulty from Latin facilis (< Archaic Latin facul), feasible, easy.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-s- (probably identical with zero-grade of dhēs-) nefarious from Latin fās, divine law, right.
4. multifarious, omnifarious from Latin -fāriam, adverbial suffix, as in bifāriam, in two places, parts, double, from *dwi-dh(ə)-, "making two" (*dwi-, two; see dwo-)
5. Reduplicated form *dhi-dhə-. thesis, thetic; anathema, antithesis, diathesis, epenthesis, epithet, hypothecate, hypothesis, metathesis, parenthesis, prosthesis, prothesis, synthesis from Greek tithenai, to put, with zero-grade noun thesis (*dhə-ti-), a placing, and verbal adjective thetos (*dhə-to-), placed.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *dhə-mn̥. thematic, theme; speleothem from Greek thema, "thing placed" proposition.
7. Reduplicated form *dhe-dhē-. samhita, sandhi from Sanskrit dadhāti, he places (past participle -hita-, from suffixed zero-grade *dhə-to-).
8. Reduced form *dh- in compound *au-dh- (see au-)

[Pokorny 2. dhē- 235.]

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