dyeu- / Indo-European roots


To shine (and in many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god").

Zero-grades *dyu- and *diw-.

Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, psychedelic.

I. Basic form *dyeu-, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon.
1. Jove, jovial; apojove, perijove, Sangiovese from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov-, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter.
2. July from Latin Iūlius, "descended from Jupiter" (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il-.
3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pəter, "O father Jove" (*pəter-, father; see pəter-) Jupiter from Latin Iuppiter, Iūpiter, head of the Roman pantheon.
4. Dione, Zeus; dianthus, Dioscuri from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.
II. Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw- and suffixation of (accented) -o-.
1. a. Tiu, Tuesday from Old English Tīw (genitive Tīwes), god of war and sky; b. Tyr from Old Norse Tȳr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Tīwaz.
2. deism, deity, joss; adieu, adios, deific, deus ex machina from Latin deus, god.
3. diva, divine from Latin dīvus, divine, god.
4. Dis, Dives from Latin dīves, rich (< "fortunate, blessed, divine").
5. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo-, heavenly. Diana from Latin Diāna, moon goddess.
6. deva, Devi; deodar, Devanagari from Sanskrit devaḥ, god, and deva-, divine.
7. Asmodeus from Avestan daēuua-, spirit, demon.
III. Variant *dyē- (< *dyeə-) dial, diary, diet2, dismal, diurnal, journal, journey; adjourn, ajouré, circadian, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian, sojourn from Latin diēs, day.
IV. Variant *deiə-. psychedelic, adelgid from Greek dēlos (< *deyalos), clear.

[Pokorny 1. dei- 183.]

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