es- / Indo-European roots


To be.

Oldest form *h1es-, zero-grade *h1s-.

Derivatives include yes, soothe, sin1, essence, absent, proud.

1. Athematic first person singular form *es-mi. am from Old English eam, eom, am, from Germanic *izm(i).
2. Athematic third person singular form *es-ti. is from Old English is, is, from Germanic *ist(i).
3. Optative stem *sī-. yes from Old English gēse, yes, from sīe, may it be (so) (gēa, yea; see i-) , from Germanic *sijai-.
4. Suffixed zero-grade (participial) form *h1s-ont-, becoming *sont-, being, existing, hence real, true.
a. sooth, soothe from Old English sōth, true, from Germanic *santhaz;
b. suffixed (collective) zero-grade form *sn̥t-yā-, "that which is" sin1 from Old English synn, sin, from Germanic *sun(d)jō, sin (< "it is true" "the sin is real");
c. suttee; bodhisattva, Satyagraha from Sanskrit sat-, sant-, existing, true, virtuous.
5. Basic form *es-. entity, essence; abessive, absent, adessive, essive, improve, inessive, interest, ossia, present1, present2, proud, quintessence, represent, stover from Latin esse, to be.
6. Basic form *es-. -ont, onto-; -biont, Homoiousian, Parousia, schizont from Greek einai (present participle ont-, being), to be (in pareinai, to be present).
7. Suffixed form *es-ti-. swastika from Sanskrit svasti, well-being (su-, good; see (e)su-)

[Pokorny es- 340.]

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