gʷerə- / Indo-European roots



Oldest form *gwerh2-.

Derivatives include grave2, grief, aggravate, baritone, guru, brute, blitzkrieg.

I. Zero-grade form *gwr̥ə-.
1. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-wi-. grave2, gravid, gravimeter, gravitate, gravity, grief, grieve; aggravate, aggrieve from Latin gravis, heavy, weighty.
2. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-u-. a. barite, barium, baryon, baryta; baritone, barycenter, barysphere, charivari from Greek barus, heavy; b. guru from Sanskrit guru-, heavy, venerable.
3. Suffixed form *gwr̥ə-es-. bar2, baro-; centrobaric, isallobar, isobar from Greek baros, weight.
4. Possibly *gwrī̆- in Greek compound *u(d)-bri- (see ud-)
II. Suffixed extended form *gwrū-to-. brut, brute from Latin brūtus, heavy, unwieldy, dull, stupid, brutish.
III. Suffixed extended form *gwrī-g-. a. brio from Spanish brio or Provençal briu, vigor, from Celtic *brīg-o-, strength; b. brig, brigade, brigand, brigantine from Old Italian briga, strife, from Celtic *brīg-ā-, strife; c. blitzkrieg, sitzkrieg from Old High German krēg, chrēg, stubbornness, from Germanic *krīg-..
IV. Suffixed full-grade form *gwerə-nā-, millstone. quern from Old English cweorn, quern.

[Pokorny 2. g̒ͧer- 476.]


To favor.

Oldest form *gwerh2-.
1. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwr̥ə-to-. grace, grateful, gratify, gratis, gratitude, gratuitous, gratuity; agree, congratulate, disgrace, ingrate, ingratiate, maugre from Latin grātus, pleasing, beloved, agreeable, favorable, thankful, with related suffixed forms *gwr̥ə-ti-, *gwr̥ə-t-ā-, *gwr̥ə-t-olo-.
2. Probably compound zero-grade form *gwr̥ə-dh(ə)-o-, "he who makes praises" (*-dh(ə)-, to do; see dhē-) bard1 from Welsh bardd and Scottish and Irish Gaelic bard, bard, from Celtic bardo-, bard.

[Pokorny 4. g̒ͧer(ə)- 478.]

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