gʷher- / Indo-European roots


To heat, warm.

Derivatives include brand, brandy, forceps, fornicate.

1. Zero-grade form *gwhr-.
a. burn1 from Old English beornan, byrnan (intransitive) and bærnan (transitive), to burn;
b. brimstone from late Old English brynstān, "burning mineral" sulfur (stān, stone; see stei-);
c. brindled from Old Norse brenna, to burn. a-c all from Germanic *brennan (intransitive) and brannjan (transitive), formed from *brenw- with nasal suffix and analogical vocalism.
a. brand from Old English brand, piece of burning wood, sword;
b. brandy from Dutch branden, to burn, distill;
c. brandish from Old French brand, sword;
d. brandade from Old Provençal brand, sword. a-d all from Germanic *brandaz, a burning, a flaming torch, hence also a sword.
3. Suffixed form *gwher-m(n)o-. therm, -therm, thermo-, -thermy; hypothermia, lobster thermidor from Greek thermos, warm, hot, and thermē, heat.
4. O-grade form *gwhor-. forceps, forcipate from Latin forceps, pincers, fire tongs (< "that which holds hot things"; -ceps, agential suffix, "-taker"; see kap-)
5. Suffixed o-grade form *gwhor-no-.
a. Fornax, furnace, hornito from Latin furnus, fornus, fornāx, oven;
b. probably Latin fornix, arch, vault (< "vaulted brick oven") fornicate, fornix.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *gwhr̥-to-, heated, likely source of Sanskrit ghṛtam, ghee, clarified butter ghee

[Pokorny g̒ͧher- 493, bh(e)reu- 143.]

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