gnō- / Indo-European roots


To know.

Oldest form *g̑neh3-, colored to *g̑noh3-, becoming *g̑nō- in satem languages and *gnō- in centum languages.

Derivatives include know, cunning, uncouth, ignore, noble, diagnosis, narrate.

1. Variant form *gnē-, contracted from *gnēə-. know; knowledge, acknowledge from Old English cnāwan, to know, from Germanic *knē(w)-.
2. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə-.
a. can1, con2, cunning from Old English cunnan, to know, know how to, be able to, from Germanic *kunnan (Old English first and third singular can from Germanic *kann from o-grade *gonə-);
b. ken, kenning from Old English cennan, to declare, and Old Norse kenna, to know, name (in a formal poetic metaphor), from Germanic causative verb *kannjan, to make known;
c. couth; uncouth from Old English cūth, known, well-known, usual, excellent, familiar, from Germanic *kunthaz;
d. kith and kin from Old English cȳth(the), cȳththu, knowledge, acquaintance, friendship, kinfolk, from Germanic *kunthithō.
3. Suffixed form *gnō-sko-. notice, notify, notion, notorious; acquaint, cognition, cognizance, connoisseur, incognito, quaint, recognize, reconnaissance, reconnoiter from Latin (g)nōscere, cognōscere, to get to know, get acquainted with.
4. Suffixed form *gnō-ro-. ignorant, ignore from Latin ignōrāre, not to know, to disregard (i-, for in-, not; see ne)
5. Suffixed form *gnō-dhli-. noble from Latin nōbilis, knowable, known, famous, noble.
6. Reduplicated and suffixed form *gi-gnō-sko-. gnome2, gnomon, gnosis, Gnostic; agnosia, diagnosis, noscapine, pathognomonic, physiognomy, prognosis from Greek gignōskein, to know, think, judge (verbal adjective gnōtos, known), with gnōsis (< *gnō-ti-), knowledge, inquiry, and gnōmōn, judge, interpreter.
7. Suffixed zero-grade form *gn̥ə-ro-. narrate from Latin narrāre (< *gnarrāre), to tell, relate, from gnārus, knowing, expert.
8. Suffixed zero-grade form *gn̥ə-ti-. Zend-Avesta from Avestan zainti-, knowledge (remade from *zāti-).
9. Traditionally but improbably referred here are:
a. note; annotate, connote, prothonotary from Latin nota, a mark, note, sign, cipher, shorthand character;
b. norm, Norma, normal; abnormal, enormous from Latin norma, carpenter's square, rule, pattern, precept, possibly from an Etruscan borrowing of Greek gnōmōn, carpenter's square, rule.

[Pokorny 2. g̑en- 376.]

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