kʷel- / Indo-European roots


To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell.

Oldest forms kwel-, kwelh2-.

Derivatives include colony, cult, wheel, cyclone, pulley, bucolic.

I. Basic form *kwel-. colonia, colony, cult, cultivate, culture, Kultur; incult, inquiline, silvicolous from Latin colere, to till, cultivate, inhabit (< *kwel-o-).
II. Suffixed form *kwel-es-. telic, telium, telo-, telos; entelechy, talisman, teleology, teleost, teleutospore from Greek telos, "completion of a cycle" consummation, perfection, end, result.
III. Suffixed reduplicated form *kw(e)-kwl-o-, circle.
1. wheel from Old English hwēol, hweogol, wheel, from Germanic *hwewlaz.
2. cycle, cyclo-, cycloid, cyclone, cyclosis; bicycle, encyclical, epicycle from Greek kuklos, circle, wheel.
3. chakra, chakram, chukker from Sanskrit cakram, circle, wheel.
4. Metathesized form *kwe-lkw-o-. charkha from Old Persian *carka-.
5. Probably ultimately from *kw(e)-kwl-o- is the Old Chinese word for "wheeled vehicle" (reflected by modern Mandarin chē), borrowed from an Indo-European language of Central Asia. jinriksha from Middle Chinese t(SHOOKR)hia, vehicle, from an Old Chinese word probably from or akin to Tocharian A kukäl and Tocharian B kokale, wagon.
IV. O-grade form *kwol-.
1. Suffixed form *kwol-so-, "that on which the head turns" neck. a. (i) hawse from Old Norse hāls, neck, ship's bow; (ii) ringhals from Middle Dutch hals, neck; (iii) habergeon, hauberk from Old French hauberc, hauberk, from Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg-, "neck-protector" gorget (*bergan, to protect; see bhergh-1). (i)-(iii) all from Germanic *h(w)alsaz; b. col, collar, collet, cullet; accolade, decollate1, décolleté, machicolate, machicolation, torticollis from Latin collum, neck.
2. Suffixed form *kwol-ā-. -colous; pratincole from Latin -cola and incola, inhabitant (in-, in; see en)
3. Suffixed form *kwol-o-. a. ancillary from Latin anculus, "he who bustles about" servant (an-, short for ambi-, around, about; see ambhi); b. pole1, pulley from Greek polos, axis of a sphere; c. bucolic from Greek boukolos, cowherd, from -kolos, herdsman.
4. Suffixed form *kwol-es- (probably a blend of o-grade *kwol-o- and expected e-grade *kwel-es-) calash, kolacky from Slavic kolo, koles-, wheel.
5. Suffixed o-grade form *kwol-eno- in Old Iranian compound *vahā-carana- (see wes-3)
6. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *kwl̥ə-i-. palimpsest, palindrome, palingenesis, palinode from Greek palin, again (< "revolving").

[Pokorny 1. k̒ͧel- 639.]


Far (in space and time).

1. Lengthened-grade form *kwēl-. tele-; hypertelorism from Greek tēle, far off.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwl̥-ai. paleo- from Greek palai, long ago.

[Pokorny 2. k̒ͧel- 640.]

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