kʷetwer- / Indo-European roots



Derivatives include four, squad, quarantine, farthing.

I. O-grade form *kwetwor-.
1. a. four from Old English fēower, four; b. forty from Old English fēowertig, forty; c. fourteen; fortnight from Old English fēowertēne, fourteen (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥). a-c all from Germanic *fe(d)wor-, probably from *kwetwor-.
2. quatrain; cater-cornered, quattrocento from Latin quattuor, four.
3. charpoy, czardas from Old Iranian cathwārō, four.
II. Multiplicatives *kweturs, *kwetrus, and combining forms *kwetur-, *kwetru-.
1. cahier, carillon, carnet, casern, quaternary, quaternion, quire1 from Latin quater, four times.
2. cadre, quadrate, quadrille1, quarrel2, quarry2; escadrille, squad, square, trocar from Latin quadrum, square.
3. quadri- from Latin quadri-, four.
4. quadrant from Latin quadrāns, a fourth part.
5. quarantine from Latin quadrāgintā, forty (-gintā, ten times; see dekm̥)
6. quadricentenary from Latin quadri(n)gentī, four hundred.
7. Variant form *kwet(w)r̥-. a. tetra- from Greek tetra-, four; b. tessera; diatessaron from Greek tessares, tettares, four; c. tetrad from Greek tetras, group of four; d. zero-grade form *kwt(w)r̥-. trapezium from Greek tra-, four.
III. Ordinal adjective *kwetur-to-.
1. a. fourth from Old English fēortha, fēowertha, fourth; b. firkin from Middle Dutch veerde, fourth; c. farthing from Old English fēorthing, fēorthung, fourth part of a penny. a-c all from Germanic *fe(d)worthōn-.
2. quadrille2, quadroon, quart, quartan, quarter, quarto; écarté from Latin quārtus, fourth, quarter.

[Pokorny k̒ͧetu̯er- 642.]

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