kelə- / Indo-European roots



Oldest form *k̑elh1-, with metathesized variant *k̑leh1-, becoming *k̑lē- in satem languages and *klē- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed variant form *klē-wo-.
a. lee from Old English hlēo, hlēow, covering, protection (as from cold);
b. lukewarm from Old English -hlēow, warm. Both a and b from Germanic *hlēwaz.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kl̥ə-ē-.
a. calenture, chafe, chauffeur, cholent; decalescence, incalescent, nonchalant, recalescence, réchauffé from Latin calēre, to be warm;
b. cauldron, caudle, chowder; scald1 from Latin derivative adjective calidus, warm.
3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kl̥ə-os-. caloric, calorie; caloreceptor, calorific, calorimeter, calorimetry from Latin calor, heat.

[Pokorny 1. k̑el- 551.]


To shout.

Oldest form *kelh2-, with metathesized variant *kleh2-, colored to *klah2-, becoming *klā-.

Derivatives include exclaim, haul, calendar, class.

I. Variant form *klā- (< *klaə-).
1. low2 from Old English hlōwan, to roar, low, from Germanic *hlō-.
2. Suffixed form *klā-mā-. claim, clamant, clamor; acclaim, declaim, exclaim, proclaim, reclaim from Latin clāmāre, to call, cry out.
II. O-grade form *kolə-. a. keelhaul from Middle Dutch halen, to haul, pull (? < "to call together, summon"); b. hale2, haul; halyard from Old French haler, to haul. Both a and b from Germanic *halōn, to call..
III. Zero-grade form *kl̥ə- (> *kal-).
1. Suffixed form *kal-yo-. conciliate, council; reconcile from Latin concilium, a meeting, gathering (< "a calling together"; con-, together; see kom)
2. Suffixed form *kal-end-. calendar, calends from Latin kalendae, the calends, the first day of the month, when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall.
3. Suffixed form *kal-e-. ecclesia, Paraclete from Greek kalein (variant klē-), to call.
4. Suffixed form *kal-ā-. intercalate, nomenclator from Latin calāre, to call, call out.
5. Suffixed form *kl̥ə-ro- or suffixed variant form *klaə-ro- contracted to *klā-ro-. clear, glair; Aufklärung, chiaroscuro, clairvoyant, clarain, declare, éclair from Latin clārus, bright, clear.
IV. Possibly extended zero-grade form *kl̥d-, becoming *klad- in suffixed form *klad-ti-. class from Latin classis, summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, also class in general.

[Pokorny 6. kel- 548.]

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