men- / Indo-European roots


To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought.

Derivatives include mind, mention, automatic, mania, money, monster, mosaic, music, amnesia.

I. Zero-grade form *mn̥-.
1. Suffixed form *mn̥-ti-. a. mind from Old English gemynd, memory, mind, from Germanic *ga-mundi- (*ga-, collective prefix; see kom); b. mental1; amentia, dement from Latin mēns (stem ment-), mind; c. mention from Latin mentiō, remembrance, mention.
2. Suffixed form *mn̥-to-. automatic from Greek -matos, "willing"
3. Suffixed form *mn̥-yo-. a. maenad from Greek mainesthai, to be mad; b. Ahriman from Avestan mainiiuš, spirit.
4. a. mania, maniac, manic from Greek maniā, madness; b. balletomane from Greek -manēs, ardent admirer.
II. Full-grade form *men-.
1. Suffixed form *men-ti-. a. minnesinger from Old High German minna, love; b. minikin from Middle Dutch minne, love. Both a and b from Germanic *minthjō.
2. a. memento from Latin reduplicated form meminisse, to remember; b. comment from Latin comminīscī, to contrive by thought (com-, intensive prefix; see kom); c. reminiscent from Latin reminīscī, to recall, recollect (re-, again, back; see re-); d. possibly Latin Minerva, name of the goddess of wisdom Minerva.
3. a. mentor from Greek Mentōr, Mentor, man's name (probably meaning "adviser"); b. -mancy, mantic, mantis from Greek mantis, seer (vocalism obscure).
4. mandarin, mantra from Sanskrit mantraḥ, counsel, prayer, hymn.
5. Suffixed form men-es-. Eumenides from Greek menos, spirit.
III. O-grade form *mon-.
1. Suffixed (causative) form *mon-eyo-. monish, monition, monitor, monster, monument, muster; admonish, demonstrate, premonition, summon from Latin monēre, to remind, warn, advise.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-twa. mosaic, Muse, museum, music from Greek Mousa, a Muse.
IV. Extended form *mnā-, contracted from *mnaə-.
1. amnesia, amnesty, anamnesis from Greek reduplicated form mimnēskein, to remember.
2. mnemonic from Greek mnēmōn, mindful.
3. Mnemosyne from Greek mnēmē, memory.
V. Indo-European verb phrase *mens dhē-, "to set mind" (*dhē-, to put; see dhē-) underlying compound noun *mn̥s-dhē-. Ahura Mazda, Mazdaism, Ormazd from Avestan mazdā-, wise.

[Pokorny 3. men- 726, mendh- 730.]


To project.

Derivatives include mouth, menace, mountain.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *mn̥-to- in a western Indo-European word for a projecting body part, variously "chin, jaw, mouth"
a. mouth from Old English mūth, mouth, from Germanic *munthaz;
b. mental2 from Latin mentum, chin.
2. menace, minacious; amenable, demean1, promenade from Latin minae, projecting points, threats.
3. eminent, imminent, prominent, promontory from Latin -minēre, to project, jut, threaten.
4. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-ti-. mons, Montagnard, montane, monte, monticule, mount1, mount2, mountain; amount, ultramontane from Latin mōns (stem mont-), mountain.

[Pokorny 1. men- 726, 2. menth- 732.]


To remain.

Variant suffixed (stative) form *man-ē-. manor, manse, mansion, ménage; immanent, permanent, remain from Latin manēre, to remain.

[Pokorny 5. men- 729.]


Small, isolated.

1. manometer from Greek manos, rare, sparse.
2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-wo-. monad, monastery, monk, mono-; pseudomonad from Greek monos, alone, single, sole.
3. Possibly also suffixed form *men-i-, a small fish. minnow from Middle English meneu, a small fish, from a source akin to Old English myne, mynwe, minnow.

[Pokorny 4. men- 728, meni- 731.]

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