pel- / Indo-European roots



Derivatives include pallor, falcon, poliomyelitis.

1. Suffixed variant form *pal-wo-.
a. (i) fallow deer from Old English fealu, fealo, reddish yellow; (ii) fauvism from Frankish *falw-, reddish-yellow. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *falwaz;
b. pale2, pallid, pallidum, pallor; appall from Latin pallēre, to be pale;
c. palomino from Latin palumbēs (influenced in form by Latin columbus, dove), ringdove, "gray-bird".
2. Probably suffixed form *pel-ko-. falcon; gyrfalcon from Late Latin falcō, falcon, from Germanic *falkōn-, falcon (< "gray bird"; but this is also possibly from the Late Latin).
3. Suffixed extended form *peli-wo-.
a. Pelops from Greek pelios, dark;
b. o-grade form *poli-wo-. poliomyelitis from Greek polios, gray.
4. Perhaps Greek pelargos, stork (< *pelawo-argos, "black-white bird"; argos, white; see arg-) pelargonium

[Pokorny 6. pel- 804.]


To fold.

1. Extended o-grade form *polt-.
a. fold1 from Old English fealdan, faldan, to fold;
b. faltboat from Old High German faldan, to fold;
c. furbelow from Italian falda, fold, flap, pleat;
d. (i) faldstool from Medieval Latin compound faldistolium, folding chair; (ii) fauteuil from Old French faldestoel, faldstool. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *faldistōlaz, "folding stool" (*stōlaz, stool; see stā-);
e. -fold from Old English -feald, -fald, -fold, from Germanic combining form *-falthaz, *-faldaz. a-e all from Germanic *falthan, *faldan.
2. Combining form *-plo-.
a. decuple, multiple, octuple, quadruple, quintuple, septuple, sextuple, triple from Latin -plus, -fold (as in triplus, threefold);
b. -ploid; triploblastic from Greek -plos, -ploos, -fold (as in haploos, haplous, single, and triploos, triple).

[Pokorny 3a. pel- 802.]


Skin, hide.

1. Suffixed form *pel-no-. fell3 from Old English fell, skin, hide, from Germanic *felnam.
2. film from Old English filmen, membrane, from Germanic suffixed form *fel-man-ja-.
3. Suffixed form *pel-ni-. pelisse, pellicle, pelt1, peltry, pillion; pellagra, surplice from Latin pellis, skin.
4. erysipelas from Greek -pelas, skin.
5. Suffixed form *pel-to-. peltate from Greek peltē, a shield (made of hide).

[Pokorny 3b. pel- 803.]


To sell.

Lengthened o-grade form *pōl-. bibliopole, monopoly from Greek pōlein, to sell.

[Pokorny 5. pel- 804.]


To thrust, strike, drive.

Derivatives include anvil, filter, pulsate, polish, appeal.

I. Suffixed form *pel-de-.
1. a. anvil from Old English anfilt(e), anfealt, anvil ("something beaten on"); b. (i) felt1 from Old English felt, felt; (ii) filter, filtrate from Medieval Latin filtrum, filter, piece of felt. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *feltaz, *filtiz, compressed wool. Both a and b from Germanic *felt-, *falt-, to beat..
2. pelt2, poussette, pulsate, pulse1, push; compel, dispel, expel, impel, impulse, propel, repel from Latin pellere (past participle pulsus), to push, drive, strike.
3. a. Suffixed o-grade form *pol-o-, fuller of cloth. polish from Latin polīre, to make smooth, polish (< "to full cloth"); b. suffixed o-grade form *pol-o- (with different accentuation from the preceding), fulled (of cloth) interpolate from Latin compound adjective interpolis (also interpolus), refurbished (inter-, between; see en).
II. Extended form *pelə2-.
1. Present stem *pelnā-. a. appeal, peal, rappel, repeal from Latin appellāre, "to drive to" address, entreat, appeal, call (ad-, to; see ad-); b. compellation from Latin compellāre, to accost, address (com-, intensive prefix; see kom).
2. Possible suffixed zero-grade extended adverbial form *pl̥ə-ti-, or locative plural *pl̥ə-si. plesiomorphy, plesiosaur from Greek plēsios, near (< "pushed toward"), from pre-Greek *plāti or *plāsi.

[Pokorny 2a. pel- 801.]

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