penkʷe / Indo-European roots



Derivatives include five, Pentecost, quintessence, finger, foist.

I. Basic form *penkwe.
1. Assimilated form *pempe. a. (i) five; fifty from Old English fīf, five, with derivative fīftig, fifty (-tēne, ten; see dekm̥); (ii) fin2 from Old High German finf, funf, five. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fimf; b. (i) fifteen from Old English fīftēne, fifteen; (ii) femto- from Old Norse fimmtān, fifteen. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fimftehun, fifteen (*tehun, ten; see dekm̥)..
2. Assimilated form *kwenkwe. a. cinquain, cinque, quinque-; cinquecento, cinquefoil, quincunx from Latin quīnque, five; b. keno, quinate from Latin distributive quīnī, five each; c. quinceañera, quindecennial from Latin compound quīndecim, fifteen (decem, ten; see dekm̥); d. quincentenary from Latin quīngentī, five hundred.
3. penta-, pentad; penstemon, pentagon, pentameter, pentathlon from Greek pente, five.
4. punch3; pachisi from Sanskrit pañca, five.
II. Compound *penkwe-(d)konta, "five tens" fifty (*-(d)konta, group of ten; see dekm̥)
1. quinquagenarian, Quinquagesima from Latin quīnquāgintā, fifty.
2. Pentecost, pinxter flower from Greek pentēkonta, fifty.
III. Ordinal adjective *penkw-to-.
1. fifth from Old English fīfta, fifth, from Germanic *fimftōn-.
2. quint1, quintain, quintet, quintile; quintessence, quintillion, quintuple from Latin quīntus (< *quinc-tos), feminine quīnta, fifth.
IV. Suffixed form *penkw-ro-. finger from Old English finger, finger, from Germanic *fingwraz, finger (< "one of five").
V. Suffixed reduced zero-grade form *pn̥k-sti-. a. fist from Old English fȳst, fist; b. foist from Dutch vuist, fist. Both a and b from Germanic *funhstiz..

[Pokorny penk̒ͧe 808, pn̥ksti- 839.]

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