per / Indo-European roots


Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward" "through" and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of" "before" "early" "first" "chief" "toward" "against" "near" "at" "around"

Derivatives include far, paradise, afford, first, protein, veneer, probe, privy, pristine, priest.

I. Basic form *per and extended form *peri.
1. a. turnverein from Middle High German vereinen, to unite, from Old High German far-; b. farklempt from Yiddish farklemmen, to clamp, choke up, from Middle High German verklemmen, from Old High German far-; c. veer2 from Middle Dutch vieren, to let out, slacken; d. Germanic compound *fer-getan (see ghend-); e. frump from Middle Dutch verrompelen, to wrinkle. a-d all from Germanic *fer-, *far-, used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *per-ero-, farther away. far from Old English feor(r), far, from Germanic *fer(e)ra.
3. per, per-; paramount, paramour, parget, parterre, parvenu from Latin per, through, for, by.
4. peri-; perissodactyl from Greek peri, around, near, beyond.
5. a. pantoum, puggree from Sanskrit pari-, couch; b. paradise from Avestan pairi-, around; c. bard2, purdah from Old Persian pari, around, over; d. Old Iranian compound *pari-vāraka- (see wer-4). a-d all from Indo-Iranian *pari-, around.
6. perestroika from Old Russian pere-, around, again, from Slavic *per-.
II. Zero-grade form *pr̥-.
1. a. for from Old English for, before, instead of, on account of; b. for- from Old English for-, prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion. Both a and b from Germanic *fur, before, in.
2. Extended form *pr̥t-. forth; afford from Old English forth, from Germanic *furth-, forward.
3. Suffixed (comparative) form *pr̥-tero-. further from Old English furthra, furthor, farther away, from Germanic *furthera-.
4. a. Compound *pr̥-st-i- or *por-st-i-, with o-grade form *por- (see stā-); b. porrect from Latin por-, forth, forward. Both a and b from Latin por- from *pr̥-.
5. Suffixed form *pr̥-sōd. parget from Latin porrō, forward.
III. Extended zero-grade form *pr̥ə-.
1. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-mo-. a. former2 from Old English forma, first, from Germanic *fruma-, *furma-; b. foremost from Old English formest, first, from Germanic *frumista-, *furmista-; c. Latin compound prandium, "first meal" late breakfast, lunch (probably < *prām-d-ium < *pr̥əm-(e)d-yo-; second element *-(e)d-, to eat; see ed-).
2. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr̥ə-isto-. first from Old English fyrst, fyrest, first, from Germanic *furista-, foremost.
3. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-wo-. a. prow from Greek prōira, forward part of a ship, from analogically suffixed form *prōw-arya; b. protein, protist, proto-, proton from Greek prōtos, first, foremost, from suffixed (superlative) form *prōw-ato-. Both a and b from Greek *prōwo-, first, foremost.
4. Suffixed form *pr̥ə-i. arpent from Latin arepennis, half-acre (second element obscure), from Gaulish ari (combining form are-), before, from Celtic *(p)ari, *are.
IV. Extended form *pr̥əā̆.
1. a. fore, fore-; forefather from Old English fore, for, before; b. vorlage from Old High German fora, before; c. before from Old English beforan, before, from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form *bi-fora-na, in the front (*bi-, at, by; see ambhi). a-c all from Germanic *fura, before.
2. para-1; palfrey from Greek para, beside, alongside of, beyond.
3. Purana from Sanskrit purā, before.
V. Extended form *prō̆.
1. a. frae, fro; froward from Old Norse frā, from, from Germanic *fra, forward, away from; b. Germanic *fra-, completely, in compounds (see ed-, aik-).
2. Suffixed form *prō̆-mo-. a. frame, from from Old English fram, forward, from, from Germanic *fram, from; b. furnish, furniture, veneer from Old French f(o)urnir, to supply, provide, from Germanic derivative verb *frumjan, to further, from Germanic *frum, forward; c. pram2 from Czech prám, raft.
3. Suffixed form *prō-wo-. a. (i) Frau, Fräulein from Old High German frouwa, lady; (ii) Freya from Old Norse freyja, lady. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *frōwō-, lady, lengthened-grade feminine of *frawan-; lord; b. Frey from Old Norse Freyr, from Germanic *frawa-, alteration of *frawan-. lord; c. form *prō-wo-, independently created in Slavic. naprapathy from Old Church Slavonic pravŭ, true.
4. pride, pro1, pro-1, prodigality, proud, prowess; improve, purchase from Latin prō, prō̆-, before, for, instead of.
5. Suffixed form *prō-no-. prone from Latin prōnus, leaning forward.
6. Possible suffixed form *pro-ko-. reciprocal from Latin compound reciprocus, alternating, "backward and forward" (*re-ko-, backward; see re-)
7. Suffixed adverb *pro-kwe. a. approach, rapprochement, reproach from Latin prope, near; b. suffixed form *prokw-inkwo-. propinquity from Latin propinquus, near; c. suffixed (superlative) form *prokw-isamo-. proximate; approximate from Latin proximus, nearest.
8. Compound *pro-bhw-o-, growing well or straightforward (*bhw-o-, to grow; see bheuə-) probable, probe, probity, proof, prove; approve, improbity, reprove from Latin probus, upright, good, virtuous.
9. pro-2 from Greek pro, before, in front, forward.
10. Suffixed (comparative) form *pro-tero-. hysteron proteron, Proterozoic from Greek proteros, before, former.
11. Prakrit from Sanskrit pra-, before, forth.
12. Celtic *ro-, intensive prefix. galore from Old Irish roar, enough, from Celtic compound *ro-wero-, sufficiency (*-wero-, from root *wer-, also the source of Old Irish feraid, he supplies, provides).
VI. Extended forms *prai-, *prei-.
1. a. pre-; preterism, preterit from Latin prae, before; b. compound *prai-ghes-to- (see ghes-).
2. Suffixed (comparative) form *prei-yos-. prior2 from Latin prior, former, higher, superior.
3. Suffixed form *prei-wo-. a. private, privilege, privity, privy; deprive from Latin prīvus, single, alone (< "standing in front" "isolated from others"); b. proper, property; appropriate, expropriate, proprioception, proprioceptor, proprium from Latin proprius, one's own, particular (< prōprīvō, in particular, from the ablative of prīvus, single; prō, for; see V. 4.).
4. Extended form *preis-. a. Suffixed (superlative) form *preis-mo-. (i) premier, primal, primary, primate, prime, primitive, primo, primus; imprimis, primavera1, primeval, primipara, primogenitor, primogeniture, primordial from Latin prīmus (< *prīsmus; ablative plural prīmīs), first, foremost; (ii) prince, principal, principle from Latin compound prīnceps, "he who takes first place" leader, chief, emperor (-ceps"-taker"; see kap-); b. suffixed form *preis-tano-. pristine from Latin prīstinus, former, earlier, original.
VII. Extended form *pres- in compound *pres-gwu-, "going before" (*gw-u-, going; see gwā-) presbyter, Prester John, priest; presbyopia from Greek presbus, old, old man, elder.
VIII. Extended form *proti. pros- from Greek pros, against, toward, near, at.

[Pokorny 2. A. per 810.]

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