sāwel- / Indo-European roots


The sun.

Oldest form *seh2wel-, colored to *sah2wel-, becoming *sāwel-, with zero-grade *s(u)wel-. The element *-el- was originally suffixal, and alternated with *-en-, yielding the variant zero-grades *s(u)wen- and (reduced) *sun-.

Derivatives include Sunday, south, solar, helium.

1. Variant forms *swen-, *sun-.
a. (i) sun from Old English sunne, sun; (ii) sundew from Middle Dutch sonne, sun. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sunnōn-;
b. Sunday from Old English sunnandæg, Sunday, from Germanic compound *sunnōn-dagaz, "day of the sun" (translation of Latin diēs sōlis);
c. south, southern from Old English sūth, south, and sūtherne, southern, from Germanic derivative *sunthaz, "sun-side" south.
2. Variant form *s(ə)wōl-. sol3, Sol, solar, solarium; girasol, insolate, parasol, solanaceous, solanine, solstice, turnsole from Latin sōl, the sun.
3. Suffixed form *sāwel-yo-. heliacal, helio-, helium; anthelion, aphelion, isohel, parhelion, perihelion from Greek hēlios, sun.

[Pokorny sāwel- 881.]

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