sker- / Indo-European roots


To cut.

Derivatives include shears, scabbard, skirmish, carnage, sharp, scrape, screw.

I. Basic form *sker-, *ker-.
1. a. shear from Old English scieran, sceran, to cut; b. sheer1 from Low German scheren, to move to and fro, and Dutch scheren, to withdraw, depart. Both a and b from Germanic *skeran.
2. a. share2 from Old English scēar, plowshare; b. share1 from Old English scearu, scaru, portion, division (but recorded only in the sense of "fork of the body" "tonsure"). Both a and b from Germanic *skeraz.
3. a. shear from Old English scēar, scissors, from Germanic *skēr-ō and *sker-ez-; b. compound *skēr-berg-, "sword protector" scabbard (*berg-, protector; see bhergh-1) scabbard from Old French escauberc, scabbard, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old High German scarberc, scabbard. Both a and b from Germanic *skēr-.
4. score from Old Norse skor, notch, tally, twenty, from Germanic *skur-.
5. scar2, skerry from Old Norse sker, low reef (< "something cut off"), from Germanic suffixed form *skar-jam.
6. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skorp-o-. scarf2 from Old Norse skarfr, diagonally-cut end of a board, from Germanic *skarfaz.
7. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skord-o-. shard from Old English sceard, a cut, notch, from Germanic *skardaz.
8. Extended form *skerd- in suffixed zero-grade form *skr̥d-o-. a. short from Old English scort, sceort, "cut" short; b. shirt from Old English scyrte, skirt (< "cut piece"); c. skirt from Old Norse skyrta, shirt. a-c all from Germanic *skurtaz.
9. a. Scaramouch, scrimmage, skirmish from Old French eskermir, to fight with a sword, fence, and Old Italian scaramuccia, skirmish, from a source akin to Old High German skirmen, to protect; b. screen from Middle Dutch scherm, shield. Both a and b from Germanic extended form *skerm-.
10. Variant form *kar-. carnage, carnal, carnassial, carnation, carnival, carrion, caruncle, charnel, crone; carne asada, carnivorous, carnosaur, charcuterie, incarnate from Latin carō (stem carn-), flesh.
11. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-yo-. coriaceous, corium, cuirass, currier; excoriate from Latin corium, leather (originally "piece of hide").
12. Suffixed zero-grade form *kr̥-to-. curt, curtal, kirtle from Latin curtus, short.
13. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-mo-. corm from Greek kormos, a trimmed tree trunk.
14. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-i-. coreopsis from Greek koris, bedbug (< "cutter").
15. Suffixed zero-grade form *skr̥-ā-. shore1 from Old English scora, shore, from Germanic *skur-ō.
II. Extended roots *skert-, *kert-.
1. Zero-grade form *kr̥t- or o-grade form *kort-. cortex; decorticate from Latin cortex, bark (< "that which can be cut off").
2. Suffixed form *kert-snā-. cenacle from Latin cēna, meal (< "portion of food").
III. Extended root *skerp-. scurf probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old English sceorf, scab, scurf, from Germanic *skerf-.
IV. Extended root *skerb(h)-, *skreb(h)-.
1. a. sharp from Old English scearp, sharp; b. scarp from Italian scarpa, embankment, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Gothic skarpō, pointed object. Both a and b from Germanic *skarpaz, cutting, sharp.
2. a. scrap1 from Old Norse skrap, "pieces" remains; b. scrape from Old Norse skrapa, to scratch. Both a and b from Germanic *skrap-.
3. a. scrabble from Middle Dutch schrabben, to scrape; b. scrub1 from Middle Dutch schrobben, to scrape. Both a and b from Germanic *skrab-.
4. shrub1 from Old English scrybb, shrub (< "rough plant"), from Germanic *skrub-.
5. scrobiculate from Latin scrobis, trench, ditch.
6. screw, scrofula from Latin scrōfa, a sow (< "rooter, digger").
V. Extended root *(s)kers-. bias from Greek epikarsios, at an angle (epi-, at; see epi) , from suffixed zero-grade form *kr̥s-yo-.

[Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, Section I. 938.]


To turn, bend.

Presumed base of a number of distantly related derivatives.

Derivatives include shrink, ranch, rink, curve, crepe, circle, search, crown.

1. Extended form *(s)kreg- in nasalized form *(s)kre-n-g-.
a. shrink from Old English scrincan, to wither, shrivel up, from Germanic *skrink-;
b. variant *kre-n-g-. (i) ruck2 from Old Norse hrukka, a crease, fold; (ii) flounce1 from Old French fronce, pleat, from Frankish *hrunkjan, to wrinkle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hrunk-..
2. Extended form *(s)kregh- in nasalized form *skre-n-gh-.
a. ring1 from Old English hring, a ring;
b. ranch, range, rank1, rink; arrange, derange from Old French renc, reng, line, row;
c. ringhals from Middle Dutch rinc (combining form ring-), a ring. a-c all from Germanic *hringaz, something curved, circle.
3. Extended form *kreuk-.
a. ridge from Old English hrycg, spine, ridge;
b. rucksack from Old High German hrukki, back. Both a and b from Germanic hrugjaz.
4. Suffixed variant form *kur-wo-. curb, curvature, curve, curvet from Latin curvus, bent, curved.
5. Suffixed extended form *kris-ni-. crinoline from Latin crīnis (< *crisnis), hair.
6. Suffixed extended form *kris-tā-. crest, crista, cristate from Latin crista, tuft, crest.
7. Suffixed extended form *krip-so-. crepe, crisp, crispate from Latin crispus (metathesized from *cripsus), curly.
8. Extended expressive form *krīss-. crissum from Latin crīsāre, (of women) to wiggle the hips during copulation.
9. Perhaps reduplicated form *ki-kr-o-. cerclage, circa, circadian, circinate, Circinus, circle, circum-, circus, cirque, search; cricoid, recherché from Greek kirkos, krikos, a ring.
10. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-ōno-. corona, crown, koruna, krona1, krona2, krone1, krone2 from Greek korōnos, curved.
11. Suffixed variant form *kur-to. kurtosis from Greek kurtos, convex.

[Pokorny 3. (s)ker- 935.]


Excrement, dung.

Oldest form *sk̑er-, becoming *sker- in centum languages.
1. Suffixed unextended form *sk-ōr, alternating with *sk-n̥-.
a. scato-, scoria, skatole from Greek skōr (stem skat- < *sk-n̥-t-), dung;
b. skarn from Old Norse skarn, dung, from Germanic skar-, alternating with skn̥-.
2. Extended form *skert- in taboo metathesis *sterk-os-.
a. stercoraceous from Latin stercus, dung;
b. variant forms *(s)terg-, *(s)treg-. dreck from Middle High German drëc, dung, from Germanic *threkka-.

[Pokorny sk̑er-(d-) 947, 8. (s)ter- 1031.]

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