stā- / Indo-European roots


To stand; with derivatives meaning "place or thing that is standing.

" Oldest form *steh2-, colored to *stah2-, contracted to *stā-.

Derivatives include steed, stud2, arrest, instant, understand, static, prostitute, insist, ecstasy, system.

I. Basic form *stā-.
1. Extended form *stādh-. a. steed from Old English stēda, stallion, studhorse (< "place for breeding horses"), from Germanic *stōd-jōn-; b. stud2 from Old English stōd, establishment for breeding horses, from Germanic *stōdō.
2. Suffixed form *stā-lo-. a. stool from Old English stōl, stool; b. Germanic compound *faldistōlaz (see pel-2). Both a and b from Germanic *stōlaz.
3. estancia, stage, stance, stanch1, stanchion, stanza, stative, stator, stay1, stet; arrest, circumstance, constant, contrast, cost, distant, extant, instant, obstacle, obstetric, oust, rest2, restharrow, restive, substance from Latin stāre, to stand.
4. stir2 from Sanskrit ātiṣṭhati (stem ā-sthā-), he stands by, remains on (ā-, near, to, at).
5. Suffixed form *stā-men-. etamine, stamen, stammel from Latin stāmen, thread of the warp (a technical term).
6. Suffixed form *stā-mon-. penstemon from Greek stēmōn, thread.
7. Suffixed form *stā-ro-. starets from Old Church Slavonic starŭ, old ("long-standing").
II. Zero-grade form *stə- (before consonants).
1. Nasalized extended form *stə-n-t-. a. stand from Old English standan, to stand; b. understand from Old English understandan, to know, stand under (under-, under-; see n̥dher); c. standard from Frankish *standan, to stand; d. stound from Old English stund, a fixed time, while, from secondary zero-grade form in Germanic *stund-ō. a-d all from Germanic *standan.
2. Suffixed form *stə-tyo-. stithy from Old Norse stedhi, anvil, from Germanic *stathjōn-.
3. Suffixed form *stə-tlo-. staddle, stall2, starling2; stalwart from Old English stathol, foundation, from Germanic *stathlaz.
4. Suffixed form *stə-mno-. a. (i) stem1 from Old English stefn, stem, tree trunk; (ii) stalag from Old High German stam, stem. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stamniz; b. estaminet probably from Walloon stamen, post to which a cow is tied at the feeding-trough, from a source derived from or akin to Germanic *stamniz.
5. Suffixed form *stə-ti-. a. (i) stead from Old English stede, place; (ii) stadholder from Dutch stad, place; (iii) shtetl; Lagerstätte from Old High German stat, place. (i), (ii), and (iii) all from Germanic *stadiz; b. stat2 from Latin statim, at once; c. station from Latin statiō, a standing still; d. armistice, solstice from Latin -stitium, a stoppage; e. stasis from Greek stasis (see III. 1. b.), a standing, a standstill.
6. Suffixed form *stə-to-. a. bestead from Old Norse stadhr, place, from Germanic *stadaz, placed; b. -stat, static, statice, stato-; astasia, astatine from Greek statos, placed, standing.
7. Suffixed form *stə-no-. a. destine from Latin dēstināre, to make firm, establish (dē-, thoroughly; see de-); b. obstinate from Latin obstināre, to set one's mind on, persist (ob-, on; see epi).
8. Suffixed form *stə-tu-. estate, étagère, stage, state, statistics, statue, stature, status, statute; constitute, destitute, institute, prostitute, restitute, substitute, superstition from Latin status, manner, position, condition, attitude, with derivatives statūra, height, stature, statuere, to set up, erect, cause to stand, and superstes (< *-stə-t-), witness ("who stands beyond").
9. Suffixed form *stə-dhlo-. stable2; constable from Latin stabulum, "standing place" stable.
10. Suffixed form *stə-dhli-. establish, stable1 from Latin stabilis, standing firm.
11. Suffixed form *stə-tā. -stat; enstatite from Greek -statēs, one that causes to stand, a standing.
12. Suffixed form *stə-mno-. stamnos from Greek stamnos, stamnos (< "one that stands upright").
III. Zero-grade form *st-, *st(ə)- (before vowels).
1. Reduplicated form *si-st(ə)-. a. assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, interstice, persist, resist, subsist from Latin sistere, to set, place, stop, stand; b. apostasy, catastasis, diastase, ecstasy, epistasis, epistemology, hypostasis, iconostasis, isostasy, metastasis, prostate, system from Greek histanai (aorist stanai), to set, place, with stasis (*stə-ti-), a standing (see II. 5. e.); c. histo-; histiocyte, histogram from Greek histos, web, tissue (< "that which is set up").
2. Compound form *tri-st-i-, "third person standing by" (see trei-)
3. Compound form *por-st-i-, "that which stands before" (*por-, before, forth; see per1) post1 from Latin postis, post.
4. Suffixed form *st-o- in compound *upo-st-o- (see upo)
IV. Extended root *stāu- (< *staəu-), becoming *stau- before consonants, *stāw- before vowels; basic meaning "stout-standing, strong"
1. Suffixed extended form *stāw-ā-. stow from Old English stōw, place, from Germanic *stōwō.
2. Probable o-grade suffixed extended form *stōw-yā-. stoa, stoic from Greek stoā (also stoiā, stōiā), porch.
3. Suffixed extended form *stau-ro-. a. (i) store; instauration from Latin īnstaurāre, to restore, set upright again (in-, on; see en); (ii) restore from Latin restaurāre, to restore, rebuild (re-, anew, again; see re-); b. staurolite from Greek stauros, cross, post, stake.
4. Variant *tau-ro-, bull (see tauro-)
V. Zero-grade extended root *stū- (< *stuə-). Suffixed form *stū-lo-. stylite; amphistylar, astylar, epistyle, hexastyle, hypostyle, octastyle, peristyle, prostyle, stylobate from Greek stūlos, pillar.
VI. Secondary full-grade form *steuə-. Suffixed form *steuə-ro-. Theravada from Sanskrit sthavira-, thick, stout, old.
VII. Variant zero-grade extended root *stu-. Suffixed form *stu-t-. stud1 from Old English stuthu, studu, post, prop.
VIII. Secondary full-grade form *steu-.
1. Suffixed form *steu-rā-. starboard from Old English stēor-, a steering, from Germanic *steurō, "a steering"
2. a. steer1 from Old English stīeran, stēran, to steer; b. stern2 from Middle English sterne, stern of a boat, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse stjōrn, a rudder, a steering, derivative of stȳra, to steer. Both a and b from Germanic denominative *steurjan.
3. Suffixed form *steu-ro-, a larger domestic animal. steer2 from Old English stēor, steer, from Germanic *steuraz, ox.
4. Probably Germanic diminutive *steur-ika-. stirk from Old English stīrc, stierc, calf.

[Pokorny stā- 1004.]

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