ster- / Indo-European roots



Derivatives include stare, starch, stork, starve, torpedo.

I. O-grade form *stor-.
1. Suffixed form *stor-ē-. stare from Old English starian, to stare, from Germanic *starēn.
2. Extended form *stor-g-. a. stark from Old English stearc, hard, severe, from Germanic *starkaz; b. starch from Old English *stercan, to stiffen, from Germanic denominative *starkjan.
II. Full-grade form *ster-.
1. stern1 from Old English stierne, styrne, firm, from Germanic *sternjaz.
2. Suffixed form *ster-ewo-. stere, stereo-; cholesterol from Greek stereos, solid.
3. Lengthened-grade form *stēr-. sterigma from Greek stērizein, to support.
III. Zero-grade form *str̥-.
1. Extended form *str̥g-. stork from Old English storc, stork (probably from the stiff movements of the bird), from Germanic *sturkaz.
2. strut from Old English strūtian, to stand out stiffly, from Germanic *strūt-.
IV. Extended form *sterd-.
1. redstart, stark-naked from Old English steort, tail, from Germanic *stertaz.
2. a. start from Old English *styrtan, to leap up (< "move briskly, move stiffly"); b. startle from Old English steartlian, to kick, struggle. Both a and b from Germanic *stert-.
V. Extended form *sterbh-. starve from Old English steorfan, to die (< "become rigid"), from Germanic *sterban.
VI. Extended form *(s)terp- in suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *tr̥p-ē-. torpedo, torpid, torpor from Latin torpēre, to be stiff.

[Pokorny 1. (s)ter- 1022.]


To spread.

Oldest forms *ster-, *sterh3-.

Derivatives include destroy, industry, straw, street, stratagem.

I. Extended form *streu-.
1. strain2 from Old English strēon, something gained, offspring, from Germanic suffixed form *streu-nam.
2. structure; construct, destroy, instruct, instrument, obstruct, substruction from Latin struere, to pile up, construct.
3. Zero-grade form *stru-. industry from Latin industrius, diligent, from Archaic Latin indostruus (endo-, within; see en)
4. bremsstrahlung from Old High German strāla, arrow, lightning bolt, from Germanic *strēlō.
II. O-grade extended form *strou-.
1. Suffixed form *strou-eyo-. a. strew from Old English strē(o)wian, to strew; b. streusel from Old High German strouwen, strowwen, to sprinkle, strew. Both a and b from Germanic *strawjan.
2. Suffixed form *strow-o-. straw from Old English strēaw, straw, from Germanic *strawam, "that which is scattered"
III. O-grade extended form *stroi-. perestroika from Old Russian strojĭ, order.
IV. Basic forms *ster-, *sterə-.
1. Nasalized form *ster-n-ə-. estray, stratus, stray, street; consternate, prostrate, substratum from Latin sternere (past participle strātus from zero-grade *str̥ə-to-), to stretch, extend.
2. Suffixed form *ster-no-. sternum; sternocleidomastoid from Greek sternon, breast, breastbone.
V. Zero-grade form *str̥-, *str̥ə-.
1. Suffixed form *str̥-to-. stratagem; stratocracy from Greek stratos, multitude, army, expedition.
2. Suffixed form *str̥ə-to-. strath from Old Irish srath, a wide river valley, from Celtic *s(t)rato-.
3. Suffixed extended form *str̥ə-mn̥. a. stroma; biostrome, stromatolite from Greek strōma, mattress, bed; b. stramenopile from Latin strāmen, straw strewn as bedding.

[Pokorny 5. ster- 1029.]



Oldest form *h2ster-.
1. Suffixed form *ster-s-. star from Old English steorra, star, from Germanic *sterzōn-.
2. Suffixed form *stēr-lā-. stellar, stellate; constellation from Latin stēlla, star.
3. Basic form *əster-. aster, asteriated, asterisk, asterism, asteroid, astral, astro-; apastron, asteroseismology, astraphobia, disaster, periastron from Greek astēr, star, with its derivative astron, star, and possible compound astrapē, asteropē, lightning, twinkling (< "looking like a star"; ōps, op-, eye, appearance; see okw-)
4. Esther1 perhaps from Persian sitareh, star, from Iranian stem *stā̆r- (or perhaps of Semitic origin; see ʕṯ

[Pokorny 2. stē̆r- 1027.]

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