upo / Indo-European roots


Under, up from under, over.

Derivatives include uproar, open, eavesdrop, supple, valet, vassal, opal.

a. up from Old English up, uppe, up;
b. up- from Old English ūp-, upp-, up;
c. uproar from Middle Low German up, up;
d. Aufklärung from Old High German ūf, up. a-d all from Germanic *upp-, up.
2. open from Old English open, open, from Germanic *upanaz, "put or set up" open.
3. above from Old English būfan, above, over, from Germanic compound *bi-ufana, "on, above" (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi)
4. Possibly suffixed form *up-t-. oft, often from Old English oft, often, from Germanic *ufta, frequently.
5. Extended form *upes-.
a. eaves from Old English efes, eaves;
b. eavesdrop from Old English yfesdrype, water from the eaves, from Germanic *obisdrup-, dripping water from the eaves (*drup-, to drip, from *dhrub-; see dhreu-). Both a and b from Germanic *ubaswō, *ubizwō, vestibule, porch, eaves (< "that which is above or in front").
6. Variant form *(s)up-.
a. soutane, sub-; souterrain from Latin sub, under;
b. supine; resupinate from Latin supīnus, lying on the back (< "thrown backward or under");
c. suffixed form *sup-ter. subterfuge from Latin subter, secretly;
d. Latin compound supplex (< *sub-plak-; see plāk-1).
7. Basic form *upo. hypo- from Greek hupo, under.
8. Suffixed variant form *ups-o-. hypso- from Greek hupsos, height, top.
9. Basic form *upo-. Celtic *wo-, under, in compound *wo-rēd- (see reidh-)
10. Probably compound *upo-st-o-. valet, varlet, vassal from Vulgar Latin *vassus, vassal, from Celtic *wasso-, "one who stands under" servant, young man (*sto-, standing; see stā-)
a. opal, Upanishad from Sanskrit upa, near to, under;
b. Zend-Avesta from Avestan upa, up to, at (in *upastāvaka-, praise). Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *upa.

[Pokorny upo 1106.]

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