wel- / Indo-European roots


To wish, will.

Derivatives include wealth, gallop, gallant, voluptuous.

1. well2 from Old English wel, well (< "according to one's wish"), from Germanic *wel-.
2. weal1, wealth from Old English wela, weola, well-being, riches, from Germanic *welōn-.
3. will1 from Old English willa, desire, will power, from Germanic *wiljōn-.
4. will2; nill, willy-nilly from Old English willan, to desire, from Germanic *wil(l)jan.
5. Germanic compound *wil-kumōn- (see gwā-)
6. O-grade form *wol-.
a. gallop from Old French galoper, to gallop;
b. wallop from Old North French *waloper, to gallop;
c. gallant; gallimaufry from Old French galer, to rejoice, from Frankish Latin *walāre, to take it easy, from Frankish *wala, good, well. a-c all from Germanic *wal-.
7. Basic form *wel-. velleity, volition, voluntary; benevolent, malevolence from Latin velle (present stem vol-), to wish, will.
8. Probably suffixed extended form *wel-p-i-. voluptuary, voluptuous from Latin voluptās, pleasure, from an adjective *volupis, pleasing (probably preserved in the adverb volup, with pleasure, from neuter *volupe).

[Pokorny 2. u̯el- 1137.]


To turn, roll; with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects.

Derivatives include waltz, willow, wallow, revolve, valley, helix.

a. waltz from Old High German walzan, to roll, waltz;
b. welter from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch welteren, to roll. Both a and b from Germanic *walt-.
2. whelk1 from Old English weoluc, weoloc, mollusk (having a spiral shell), whelk, from Germanic *weluka-.
3. Perhaps Germanic *wel-. willow from Old English welig, willow (with flexible twigs).
4. Perhaps Germanic *welk-. walk from Old English wealcan, to roll, toss, and wealcian, to muffle up.
5. O-grade form *wol-.
a. well1 from Old English wiella, wælla, welle, a well (< "rolling or bubbling water" "spring");
b. gaberdine from Old High German wallōn, to roam;
c. wallet possibly from Old North French *walet, roll, knapsack. a-c all from Germanic *wall-.
6. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *wol-ā-.
a. wale from Old English walu, streak on the skin, weal, welt;
b. Old High German *-walu, a roll, round stem, in compound *wurzwalu (see wrād-). Both a and b from Germanic *walō.
7. Extended form *welw-.
a. wallow from Old English wealwian, to roll (in mud), from Germanic *walwōn;
b. vault1, vault2, volt2, voluble, volume, volute, volutin, volvox, voussoir; archivolt, circumvolve, convolve, devolve, evolve, involucrum, involve, multivoltine, revolve from Latin volvere, to roll;
c. suffixed o-grade form *wolw-ā-. volva, vulva from Latin vulva, volva, covering, womb;
d. suffixed zero-grade form *wl̥w-ā-. valve, valvule from Latin valva, leaf of a door (< "that which turns");
e. suffixed form *welu-tro-. elytron from Greek elutron, sheath, cover.
8. Suffixed form wel-n-. ileus; neurilemma from Greek eilein (< *welnein), to turn, squeeze.
9. Perhaps variant *wall-. vail, vale1, valley, vlei from Latin vallēs, vallis, valley (< "that which is surrounded by hills").
10. Possibly suffixed form *wel-enā-. Helen; elecampane, inulin from the Greek name Helenē (oldest form Welenā), Helen.
11. Suffixed form *wel-ik-. helicon, helix; helicopter from Greek helix, spiral object.
12. Suffixed form *wel-mi-nth-. helminth; anthelmintic, aschelminth, platyhelminth from Greek helmis, helmins (stem helminth-), parasitic worm.

[Pokorny 7. u̯el- 1140.]

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