4], but don't get too excited: The methane could be produced abiotically
, no microbes required.
Ammonia-N could be fixed abiotically
to soil organic matter, lignin, peat or coal (Dong et al.
Rajagopal, Degradation of abiotically
aged LDPE films containing pro-oxidant by bacterial consortium.
A key problem with the detection of extra-terrestrial life is that the origin of ancient rock structures can often be explained both biologically and abiotically
- that is, they could have been created by a living organism or by some chemical or physical action.
Our predictions were: (1) primate abundance will differ between the two sites; (2) density and richness of seedlings and saplings will be greater at the site with higher primate abundance; (3) the site with lower primate abundance will be characterized by higher seedling and saplings density and richness of tree species dispersed abiotically
, or by other biotic dispersers (e.
Should life truly exist on an exoplanet, detecting nitrogen as well as oxygen could help astronomers verify the oxygen's biological origin by ruling out certain ways oxygen can be produced abiotically
, or through means other than life.
In this abiotically
constrained environment, the ant fauna and their behavior are poorly known even though being important on multitrophic interactions with plants and herbivores (Byk and Del-Claro, 2011; Fagundes et al.
2] release is both biotically and abiotically
For the Pollination trait, taxa were considered to be abiotically
pollinated if the flowers are nonexistent (conifers) or are not showy and not known to produce any sensory attractants.
However, PAHs are also known to form abiotically
as solar radiation interacts with space dust, which means they could have been present in the rocks that initially came together to form Mars.
Such large seeds are unlikely to be buried abiotically
(Chambers & MacMahon, 1994), and scatter-hoarding animals are an effective means of dispersal in arid and semiarid environments because they place large seeds in protective underground microsites.
Moreover, aqueous suspensions of nPM were cytotoxic to murine macrophages, possibly by generating reactive oxygen species abiotically
(Xia et al.