For instance, Palmgren, on the basis of i-mutation, distinguishes eight types of formal relation between nouns and denominal weak verbs (land "land" ~ lendan "to land," lar "teaching" ~ l[??]ran "to teach," segl "sail" ~ siglan "to sail," bold "house" ~ byldan "to build," blod "blood" ~ bledan "to bleed," lust "pleasure" ~ lystan "to please," rum "room" ~ ryman "to clear up" and stean "steam" ~ stieman "to emit steam"), but relates the derivatives of strong verbs mainly to the ablaut
of the verb and only secondarily to other phenomena.
In one of them, only those nouns which are either zero-related to the verb or created from a verb by means of the morphological process known as ablaut
(song from sing, death from die, thought from think, etc.) are included.
Finally, the general view seems to be that the sling/slung/slung ablaut
pattern in English verbs is productive, while the swim/swam/sum pattern is not.
The current study describes these types phonologically, naming them (ablaut
, templatic, Vb infixation and deletion respective).
California STEDT, 2011.) In this Chin study Button's several reconstruction systems make productive use of Pulleyblank's vision of an ablaut
contrast between vowels a and a, as against the far more widely accepted four- and six-vowel systems of Fang-Kuei Li (1902-87) and Baxter.
Along with the analysis of the nature of morphological bases, Kastovsky (1968) has listed an inventory of alternations that can be traced back to the study of Germanic ablaut
, which, in terms of word-formation, involves the use of inflectional means for derivational purposes, notably the stems of the present, preterite and past participle of strong verbs.
The high unrounded vowel *i in the Khanty cognate is the high ablaut
grade of an original *a (Helimski 2001; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 : 42); the ablaut
was triggered by the vowel in the suffix *-im.
Hulle was 'nog goed vertroud met die ablaut
van sterk werkwoorde', maar het in hul skryftaal 'aan die perfektum die voorkeur gegee', skryf sy.
* Opruiming van ablaut
by meervoudsvorming: Biesagheite < besighede (Kanna 67), skippe i.p.v.
occurs only with a handful of cognate nouns: e.g.
There is a direct correspondence with Indo-European derivatives from IE *Rer- 'horn' [with its many ablaut
grades, as *kr-, *kera-, *kera-u-, *kera-i- ] : *ker[h.sub.2] (s), e.g., Gk keras 'horn', TochB karse 'stag' [< *'horned one'] or *R6ru 'horn', e.g.