In one of them, only those nouns which are either zero-related to the verb or created from a verb by means of the morphological process known as ablaut
(song from sing, death from die, thought from think, etc.
Finally, the general view seems to be that the sling/slung/slung ablaut
pattern in English verbs is productive, while the swim/swam/sum pattern is not.
In this Chin study Button's several reconstruction systems make productive use of Pulleyblank's vision of an ablaut
contrast between vowels a and a, as against the far more widely accepted four- and six-vowel systems of Fang-Kuei Li (1902-87) and Baxter.
Along with the analysis of the nature of morphological bases, Kastovsky (1968) has listed an inventory of alternations that can be traced back to the study of Germanic ablaut
, which, in terms of word-formation, involves the use of inflectional means for derivational purposes, notably the stems of the present, preterite and past participle of strong verbs.
The high unrounded vowel *i in the Khanty cognate is the high ablaut
grade of an original *a (Helimski 2001; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006 : 42); the ablaut
was triggered by the vowel in the suffix *-im.
Next, those contrasts due to the ablaut
of the verb are put aside.
Hulle was 'nog goed vertroud met die ablaut
van sterk werkwoorde', maar het in hul skryftaal 'aan die perfektum die voorkeur gegee', skryf sy.
Opruiming van ablaut
by meervoudsvorming: Biesagheite < besighede (Kanna 67), skippe i.
In Chechen, aspect is marked by stem alternation (vowel ablaut
in the productive conjugations) (Beerle 1988, Handel 2003, Nichols & Vagapov 2004).
Martin Arista (forthcoming a) offers a typology of zero-derivation phenomena in Old English that includes: (i) zero derivation with explicit inflectional morphemes and without explicit derivational morphemes, as in ridan 'to ride' > rida 'rider'; (ii) zero derivation without explicit or implicit morphemes, either inflectional or derivational, as in bidan 'to delay' > bid 'delay'; (iii) zero derivation without inflectional or derivational morphemes but displaying ablaut
, as in drifan 'to drive' > draf 'action of driving'; and (iv) zero derivation with ablaut
and formatives that can no longer be considered productive affixes, such as -m in fleon 'to fly' > fleam 'flight'.
occurs only with a handful of cognate nouns: e.
There is a direct correspondence with Indo-European derivatives from IE *Rer- 'horn' [with its many ablaut
grades, as *kr-, *kera-, *kera-u-, *kera-i- ] : *ker[h.