where [tau] is the transmittance of the calorimeter window (unity when no window is used) and a is the absorptance
of the cavity.
Although the transmission in the first gap remains zero, the reflectance is not equal to unity because of strong absorptance
Throughout the visible range, reflectance is closely associated ([r.sup.2] [is less than] 0.97) with leaf chlorophyll concentration (Gitelson and Merzlyak, 1994; Horler et al., 1983; Knipling, 1970); therefore, lower values indicate higher absorptance
of light which is utilized in physiological processes and manifested as higher turf quality.
Textured surfaces are known to scatter the light passing through thin-film solar cells, thereby increasing the optical pathlength in the cells and hence the overall absorptance
. Advanced optical modeling predicts that light trapping methods, such as texturing the superstrate of thin-film solar cells, can maintain high photocurrents in very thin a-Si:H solar cells .
Calculating the area ratios or absorptance
weighted area ratios is easy and fast.
Reflectance in the visible range (400-700 nm) is thus relatively low due to increased chlorophyll absorptance
at this range.
from a curve of the absorptance
of (1 - [[rho].sup.*]) blackened surface to solar incident angle, which can be applied to Lake.
Raman scattering study was performed on a Jobin Yvon LabRAM HR spectrometer using 514.5 nm irradiation from an argon ion laser at 20 mW Spectral transmittance and absorptance
measurements were taken on the samples with a commercial thin film metrology system (Scientific Computing International, FilmTek Par 3000 SE).
(1989), using a pulse amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorometer (Schreiber et al., 1986), (ii) measurement of the PPFD at the leaf surface, and (iii) an accurate estimate of leaf absorptance
of the incident PPFD.
(86[degrees]F) [C.sup.-1] (0.0331 [degrees][F.sup.-1]) 2 Lighting Load 10,319 W 0.000034 [W.sup.-1] (35209 btu/hr) (0.00001 btu/ [hr.sup.-1]) 3 Equipment Load 90,489 W 0.0000016 [W.sup.-1] (308761 btu/hr) (0.00000047 btu/ [hr.sup.-1]) 4 DOAS supply 13[degrees]C 0.0402[degrees] Temp (55.4[degrees]F) [C.sup.-1] (0.0225 [degrees][F.sup.-1]) 5 DOAS supply 4382 [m.sup.3]/hr 0.000093 [m.sup.3]/ Air Flow (2578 cfm) [hr.sup.-1] (0.000159 [cfm.sup.-1]) 6 Roof-- 5.2833 [m.sup.2]- 0.007941 [m.sup.2]- Insulation K/W (30 [ft.sup.2]- K/[W.sup.-1] (0.0014 hr-F/btu) [ft.sup.2]-hr-F/ [btu.sup.-1]) 7 Roof--color 0.3 0.2052 (Solar Absorptance
) 8 Room Temp 23.9[degrees]C 0.15474[degrees] (75[degrees]F) [C.sup.-1] (0.085 [degrees][F.sup.-1]) 9 Occupancy 79 0.0018 S.No.
Figure 3 illustrates the absorptance
(A) and EQE of a-[Si.sub.1-x][Ge.sub.x]:H single-junction cells as a function of the p/i grading width.
Another method of assessing plant water status depends on absorptance
of light by water at certain near-infrared wavelengths.