In palms, false vivipary occurs on both erect (Socratea), climbing (Calamus) and acaulescent
(Salacca) stems and is successful in all of these habits (Fisher & Mogea, 1980; Dransfield, 1992; Dransfield, 1997; Baker et al., 2000; Pintaud & Millan, 2004; Rupert et al., 2012).
The four species are monocarpic acaulescent
rosettes, mostly found in frailejon-grassland plant communities proper of andean Paramos (Varadarajan 1990, Betancur 2000, Mora et al.
Astrocaryum malybo, locally known as palma estera, is an acaulescent
spiny palm endemic to the warm lowlands of northern Colombia, where it forms small populations in dry or wet forest relicts (Galeano & Bernal, 2010).
Erect herb, aquatic herb, trailing and prostrate herb, cushion plant, tussock graminoid, scattered graminoid, tufted grass, acaulescent
rosettes, and non-vascular plants (values: average [+ o -] standard error).
There were only eight species of small palms in the sample and one of them was acaulescent
. We found only one species of liana palm (Table 1, Fig.
Vriesea incurvata Gaudich is an herbaceous, acaulescent
, epiphytic bromeliad, reaching 50 cm in height.
, deciduous herb 13-56 cm in height above ground including the inflorescence.
However, more material was needed to complete the description, especially because the rosette did not show whether it is a caulescent or acaulescent
These five species comprise the complete range of growth forms known for the genus, i.e., subshrubs, cushionforming herbs, acaulescent
, rosulate herbs and vines.
Begonia urophylla (section Gireoudia) is a rhizomatous acaulescent
herb, found from Guatemala to Venezuela, from sea level up to 2000 m (Burt-Utley 1985).
phalerata, at the rain forest in Bolivia, (6-8 leaves/year; Paniagua 1998); and it contrasts to the lower leaf production in acaulescent
species as A.
The former with 40 species is found in most ecosystems in Tropical South-America; it is well diversified in habit, either caespitose or solitary, and develops either large palms, or medium-sized to short-trunked palms with large leaves, or slender palms with medium-sized leaves, or acaulescent
palms with large or with short leaves (Kahn 2008).