It is pertinent to mention that the total outstanding GIDC (billed and unbilled) of Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL) was Rs69.1 billion, as it deposited an amount of Rs44.8 billion from its total accrual of Rs113.9 billion.
Similarly, outstanding GIDC of SSGCL was Rs145.7 billion, as it deposited an amount of Rs23.9 billion from its total accrual of Rs168 billion.
Since the accrual anomaly was documented in Sloan (1996), a large body of literature attempts to explore the causes of the anomaly.
There are several reasons why it is important to examine whether the accrual anomaly depends on firm size.
Public sector accrual accounting practices--as PFM best practices--assist in the provision of richer information with a single set of accounting procedures for the decision-making process (see Alt, Lassen, & Skilling, 2002; Chan & Zhang, 2013; Diamond, 2002; Guthrie, 1998).
However, accrual practices have been quite varied across central governments.
For one, it is a material accrual
, as the loss reserve generally is the largest liability on an insurer's balance sheet.
The Law mentioned that the adoption of an accrual
accounting system should cover a period of five years starting from 2003 until 2008.
Moreover, we believe that if we take into consideration the costs of adopting the accrual
accounting, at the expense of the cash accounting, then such a transition is useful in the context of the adoption of broader reforms in the public sector.
To study accounting profit in most of the researches done in accounting, it is categorized as cash and accrual
, and the effect of each on the qualitative characteristics of profit, stock return, and ...