Alterations in gastric pH due to hyper-gastrenemia, achlorhydria
, inflammatory cyto-kines, inhibition of H.
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting tumour (VIPoma) is an extremely rare NET, causing the syndrome of watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia, and achlorhydria
(WDHA syndrome), or the Verner-Morrison syndrome, named after its discoverers.
Despite its multifactorial etiology, anemia might be nutritional (iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12), inherited (thalassemia and sickle cell), environmental pollutants (lead), infectious (malaria), socioeconomic (low maternal level of education and low household income), demographic factors (age and gender), autoimmune (hemolytic anemia), malabsorption (achlorhydria
), and chronic (cancer); iron deficiency anemia IDA is the most common cause of anemia .
Recker, "Calcium absorption and achlorhydria
," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Patients with achlorhydria
or those receiving H2-receptor antagonists may demonstrate impaired absorption.
A review by Santos and Sapico reveal that vertebral osteomyelitis most commonly occurs at the lumbar level (50% of cases) and that a majority (54%) of patients exhibit some predisposing factor for the infection including atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease, diabetes, collagen diseases, liver cirrhosis, achlorhydria
, or turtle contact (in the case of Agbeni specifically) [3-5].
pylori associated chronic gastritis with resultant achlorhydria
and reduced ascorbic acid secretion leading to reduced intestinal iron absorption.
The use in patients with liver disease, cholangitis, achlorhydria
, gallstones and any other biliary disorders is not recommended (HMPC 2014).
(22) This makes sense since gastric ulcer patients may have hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria
whereas duodenal ulcer patients are more likely to be hyperchlorhydric.
resulting in reduced iron absorption, and
is common in older subjects and it may limit calcium absorption.23 A study carried out on people living in Saudi Arabia reported that vitamin D deficiency affects bone mass density as well as bone turnover markers among Saudi Arabian males and is largely attributed to sedentary lifestyle, minimal exposure to sunlight, older age and obesity.10
pylori might be able to cause iron deficiency by several mechanisms such as increased loss of iron due to active haemorrhage secondary to gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer; chronic pangastritis resulting in achlorhydria
and reduced iron absorption; reduced ascorbic acid or iron utilisation by H.