The differential diagnosis of pernio includes other cold-induced syndromes such as Raynaud's syndrome, cold panniculitis, cold urticaria, livedo reticularis, acrocyanosis
, and chilblain lupus.
The differential diagnosis of pernio includes other cold-in duced syndromes such as Raynaud's syndrome, cold panniculitis, cold urticaria, livedo reticularis, acrocyanosis
, and chilblain lupus.
Shortly after, the patient developed livedo reticularis of the extremities and acrocyanosis
suggestive of peripheral vascular involvement.
Some skin signs and symptoms seen in eating disorders are acrocyanosis
, gingivitis, lanugo-like body hair, hard calluses, onychophagia, generalized pruritis, hyperpigmentation, poor wound healing, cheilitis, seborrhic dermatitis, acquired pili torti, alopecia, Russell's sign, carotenoderma, Sjogren syndrome like changes, brittle nails and hair, periungal erythema, melasma, steatotic skin, hypertrichosis, striae distesae, and dry scalp hair.
It is given as traditional practice to newborns for checking 1) the patency of the gut and 2) for relieving acrocyanosis
Manifestations of acrocyanosis
, mottled skin, and increased central to toe temperature gradient, decreased PI, and the sublingual microcirculation all partly reflect impaired microcirculation.
The disease is characterized by an early onset of neurological degeneration, chronic hemorrhagic diarrhea, recurrent petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis
and death in the first years of life (2-4).
Her mother did note that the infant's hands and feet appeared slightly "dark" at home, but she was reassured that this was normal acrocyanosis
. Her pediatrician saw her at two separate routine office visits, where no murmur or other abnormality was reported.
Systemic symptoms and signs evocative for SSc, such as presence of RP or acrocyanosis
, telangiectasias or calcinosis, visceral involvement such as interstitial lung disease, or esophagus dyskinesia were always reported.
This patient has ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) , a severe disorder affecting mitochondria and blood vessels that typically presents with central nervous system disease, gastrointestinal dysfunction, retinal vessel tortuosity, petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis
, and the production of ethylmalonic acid (EMA).
Other transient skin conditions seen were milia (5), vernix caseosa (5), acrocyanosis
(3), neonatal acne (3), erythema toixcum neonatorum (1) and neonatal alopecia (1).
Association with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, acrocyanosis
, and poor peripheral circulation was observed.