She reverses the privilege that comes with proximity to Standard English, the late eighteenth century's linguistic acrolect
Ulrike Gut's narrow focus on relativization strategies in professionals' speech ("Relative Markers in Spoken Standard Jamaican English") presents a view of an acrolect
that seems to draw from written English, and is thus sometimes more formal than the Standard English norm (for example in its exclusion of the widespread 'that' relative pronoun).
In this model, the acrolect
(Standard Jamaican English) is a direct result of the British's presence and is "essentially a regional dialect of English associated with upper- and upper-middle-class speakers and spoken in the capital of Kingston and other metropolitan areas" (Wassink and Dyer 15).
They produced some mesolectal Tobagonian Creole (Tob mc) and some acrolect
(Tob s) or some basilect (Tob bc) and some mesolect in a proportional representation of the two varieties which was not random but pre-selected and controlled.
Because the continuum is characterized by constant shifting among the basilect, mesolect, and acrolect
, and thus, the lexical and grammatical variability of structures which emerges as speakers move among these lectal varieties, a Creole-English student's linguistic repertoire uses several basilect, mesolect and acrolect
lexico-grammatical features typical of both conversational and academic registers.
In this connection, let me note that 'whom' is dead in informal (basilectal and mesolectal) varieties of English, and survives only in the acrolect
(see Alan S.
For example, Standard Jamaican English is the acrolect
where Jamaican Creole is spoken.
The introductory chapter contains a brief presentation of useful but very often problematic terminology to be used in the book (language, dialect, acrolect
, basilect, mesolect, creole, etc.
Solibo used the four facets of our diglossia," he writes: "the Creole basilect and acrolect
, the French basilect and acrolect
, quivering, vibrating, rooted in an interlectal space that I thought to be our more exact socio-linguistic reality.
Hence, to designate the nationally prestigious spoken American English, the term acrolect
is used in contrast to the term basilect and mesolect which refer to the less prestigious varieties.
In a characteristic image, Chamoiseau, following Jean Bernabe, has likened acrolectal French and basilectal creole to two contiguous mangrove swamps linked by intermediary mangrove where interlectal exchanges between acrolect
and basilect takes place and where an "intermediary creole" (an Kreyol mitannye) is constantly in the process of being formed and reformed, combining and recombining elements drawn from the other two mangroves into ever-changing syncretic patterns.
, mesolect and basilect) or on the basis of their first language or mother tongue background as in Raza (2008).