The morphological acrosome
abnormality was assessed by viewing wet mount of diluted spermatozoa fixed in buffered Formalin-Citrate solution described by Weitze (1977).
In our experiments, cells appeared to be disrupted as they agglutinated, and this was likely due to an acrosome
5% eosin solution), mass activity (%, undiluted semen), motility (%, diluted with normal saline), progressive motility using an arbitrary scale of 1 to 5 (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 = 10 to 25%, 25 to 50%, 50 to 70%, 70 to % 90 or 90 to 100% of the motile spermatozoa), viability (%, using eosin-nigrosin staining) and morphologically normal acrosome
However, in this study the acrosome
could not be seen on the anterior end at high magnifications, which was different from that reported for P.
A component of oviductal fluids, probably a glycosaminoglycan, is reported to positively affect bovine sperm capacitation and the acrosome
reaction (Parrish et al.
For example, previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of caprine spermatozoa with calcium ionophore treatment was more effective than heparin or caffeine pretreatment in promoting ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome
reaction (Pereira et al.
PTX increases cAMP level by a methylxanthine inhibition of phosphodiesterase and thus improves motility, capacitation and acrosome
reaction (Yovich et al.
This is essential for in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mouse oocytes, and in its absence the acrosome
reaction cannot occur (Lee and Storey, 1986).
Highly variable carbohydrate compositions of the egg outer coats have been reported in a broad spectrum of species, from invertebrates to vertebrates, that are known to serve functions in gamete recognition and/or acrosome
Because researchers cannot distinguish between sperm with and without acrosome
caps, they must inject more than one sperm into an egg in order to get a decent shot at fertilization -- a practice that sometimes produces useless, polyspermic eggs, says Lippi.
During the fertilization process, specific protein-degrading enzymes are added to the acrosomal membrane of spermatozoa in the epididymis, and spermatozoa are capacitated by the uterine environment and hormones, thereby completing the acrosome
reaction (Phelps et al.
Moreover, POEC and its conditioned medium efficiently increased the in vitro acrosome
reaction of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa (23).