The well known causes of facial swelling in cattle are Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis
but soft tissue abscesses, dental or periodontal diseases, facial bone fractures, salivary gland or sinus problems and neoplasia can also be the underlying causes of facial swelling.
As a result of disease signs and health problems observed during the survey, five main pathologies were described: actinosis (actinomycosis / actinobacillosis
), bovine respiratory diseases (BRD), neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), copper deficiency and black leg, gas gangrene and enterotoxaemia (BGE).
Spilanthes Leaf, flowerToothache, insecticidal, colic, acmella (L.) Actinobacillosis
(stiffening of tongue in cattle-- Murray cow, goat).
Esophageal obstructions have been occasionally recorded due to mango (Veena et al., 2000), tarpaulin cloth (Sreenu and Kumar, 2001), Actinobacillosis
, granuloma (Meagher and Mayhew, 1978), beet roots (Prakash et al., 2014) in buffaloes.