Most evolutionary biologists are academics, and as such sometimes engage in what Samuel Johnson called "the acrimony of the scholiast." They might be roughly divided into two camps, adaptationists
Consider, for example, the debate between adaptationists
and mitigationists over climate policy.
His third suggested reason is the lack of interest in clinical systems thinking from cognitivists, adaptationists
, and other scientifically literate literary critics, in part because of their preference for empirical validity over the "soft" sciences.
He and the other adaptationists
are unimpressed by the litany of impacts that will occur in the natural world.
Mark's Cathedral in Venice--to the elaborations of natural anatomy Their purpose is to argue that adaptationists
too often look at secondary e piphenomena as a cause of natural forms [such as the divaricate patterns in mollusks] rather than as the effect of structural systems in nature.
It is on this ideological sticking point, rather than the myth of Progress (1) in its Victorian formulation, that one might profitably interrogate the contemporary Oxford School, especially in light of Ruse's soft spot for taking post-Hamilton English adaptationists
as the very models of modern professionalism.
tried to avoid the problem of historicity by conceiving an adaptive explanation as a simultaneous abductive argument for the truth of the historical assumptions which it requires [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
Some authors see culture as intangible shared meanings and basic assumptions, or what Sathe (1983) calls "ideationalists"; others as tangible forms, or what Sathe calls "cultural adaptationists
"; and others again as a mixture of observable forms and non-observable meanings and assumptions.
believe culture is manifest through artifacts, such as its language, rituals and dress.
Sugiyama's article "Narrative Theory and Function" engages a major theoretical issue that is still very much a live question among adaptationists
concerned with cultural artifacts.
Gould and Lewontin (1979) faulted adaptationists
for failing to distinguish the current utility of a trait from the reasons for its origin and for attempting to develop adaptive stories for all biologic traits.
So the triumph of 'modern Darwinism' was also a triumph for individual selectionists over group selectionists, and for adaptationists