Whenever a plan to award tradable carbon credits to a developing country for REDD activities is considered, four issues are typically raised: monitoring, leakage, additionality
, and permanence.
The topics addressed are: additionality
of credit guarantees for wheat exports, welfare effects of supply expansion with trade restriction in the case of salmon, the implication of US rice export promotion programs in select Latin American countries, endogenous trade protection in the Mexican corn market, and exploitation and analysis of long run cointegration properties of a quarterly system of US wheat-related product markets.
However his call for additionality
to be removed completely from future Government contracts provoked outrage from health unions in the North last night.
Even when they do produce additionality
, guarantee schemes remain too expensive and thus unsustainable.
This programme provides additionality
through scaling up the work of ATI by supporting the beneficiary RMCs to become members.
lies in the use of its "AAA" rating to share trade risk and expand the trade finance capacity of CIB to take on more risk from other local banks in Africa, thereby expanding trade and strengthening regional integration.
If the level of public expenditure is maintained, additionality
is considered to be respected.
Government R&D funding and company behaviour; measuring behavioural additionality
Dr Ball is calling for the job creation rule to be scrapped and for the additionality
concept - under which the project will not go ahead without assistance from the public sector - to be removed.
If the brief is to help create a sustainable British film industry, then additionality
is the millstone which drowns you," says one council member.
IFC's Expected Role and Additionality
: IFC's expected role and additionality
would consist in: (i) creating a demonstration effect by investing in the first airport project implemented under a Public Private Partnership structure in Madagascar; (ii) providing long-term financing which would not be available from commercial banks; (iii) providing and mobilizing from other financiers the full debt amount needed for the financing of the Project; and (iv) providing an interest rate swap to cover the loans contracted by the Project Company.
in this project stems from its role as the continent's premier development finance institution that is committed to the promotion of exports.