It was also recorded in temporal expressions: tammuz-e-va "from july (onwards)", and the locational adverb fatnawa "above" (together with fatnaka, marked here with adessive
In (6) we find that the adessive
marker of alla 'at under' is replaced by the ablative marker.
The expressions function as manner or cause (or occasionally condition) adverbials and consist of the adessive
case form of an action nominalization, a genitive attribute realizing the actor argument of the nominalization, and optional adjectival modifiers (1):
Iron nominative boex boex-toe boex genitive boex-i boex-t-i boex-y dative boex-oen boex-t-oen boex-oen allative boex-moe boex-toe-moe boex-moe ablative boex-aej boex-t-oej boex-aej inessive boex-i boex-t-i boex-y adessive
boex-boel boex-toe-boel boex-yl comitative (boexi xoeccoe) (boexti xoeccoe) boex-imoe equative boex-au boex-t-au boex-au pl.
The possessed entity fills the one-place argument of the existential predicate, whereas the possessor appears as an NP marked as an oblique and is encoded by way of adessive
marking or comitative marking.
Consider the example in (3a) showing a noun marked by the Adessive
case ending -l (glossed here as 'on') and the underlying syntactic structure in (3b) (data from Viitso 1998).
indirectal (see Chapter 4) that occurs in the material of the 1970s, has become deeply rooted in the journalistic texts of the 1990s.
9) There are other examples of syncretism in Luuditsa Votic: merging of the allative and adessive
singular and the homonymy of the genitive and illative plural.
1: 1ST PERSON; 2: 2ND PERSON; 3: 3RD PERSON; AD: ADESSIVE
RELATION 'AT'; AMC: ASSOCIATED MOTION 'DO AN ACTION ON THE WAY TO THE DEICTIC CENTRE'; AMS: ASSOCIATED MOTION 'DO AN ACTION AFTER ARRIVAL TO THE DEICTIC CENTRE'; COMP_CERT: COMPLETE CERTAINTY; CON: CONTRASTIVE CONNECTOR; COND: CONDITIONAL; DEF: DEFINITE ARTICLE; DM: DISCOURSE MARKER; F: FEMININE; GK: GATEKEEPER, FOLLOWED BY INDIVIDUAL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER; IMP: IMPERATIVE; INF: INFINITIVE; INTENS: INTENSIFIER; INTENT: INTENTION; IR: IRREALIS; LOC: LOCATIVE; M: MASCULINE; NEG: NEGATION; NEG.
15) In the latter respect, Lower Luga Ingrian is different from Soikkola Ingrian, which does not have a separate marker for the comitative, and expresses the corresponding meaning either with the adessive
or with a postposition (PoxaHCKHH 2010 : 82, 84).
Furthermore, Lehmann (2002:73) and Palancar (2002:126) both suggest an extension from specific locative cases (superessive in Bulgarian and adessive
in Hunzib) to Dative.
The contrast shows up in (12), which is only acceptable with the locative in the allative, not the adessive