But the agency added that the threats to the 2,300-kilometre (1,400-mile) reef were "multiple, cumulative and increasing" and, in addition to warming seas, included agricultural run-off
and coral-eating crown of thorns starfish.
class="shnbodyIts spread has been fuelled by inflow of nutrient-rich water from urban, industrial and agricultural run-off
, and insufficient waste water treatment.
However, factors such as coastal upwelling or agricultural run-off
can increase nutrient levels in water and can cause algal blooms, which in some cases produce biotoxins like ciguatoxin.
Major waste flows including wastewater, manures and agricultural run-off
contain antibiotic residues.
The other is spikes in nutrients due to the increase of coastal and agricultural run-off
into the ocean; the additional nutrients and sediments promote algae blooms, increasing the amount of food for many animals, including COTS larvae.
from farms, household sewage, and industries' untreated wastewater reach rivers and pollute them - jeopardizing their condition and capability to provide food, Leones said.
Major environmental issues include water pollution from raw sewage, industrial waste and agricultural run-off
; rising deforestation; soil erosion and desertification.
They also affirm that they have noticed and felt the effects of the water shortage in recent years which was evident when the government enforced the recycling of agricultural run-off
waters more than once which causes problems to the soil, but which they were offered no alternative for because agriculture is the main life source for Egyptians especially since most of Egypt's land is desert land.
, salinisation and eutrophication of wetlands are key challenges.
Sewage works, septic tanks, abstraction, agricultural run-off
and degraded river habitats are among the factors blamed.
But like many rivers, while the Otter has excellent water quality at its headwaters, it becomes more degraded downstream as it collects agricultural run-off
, sediments and fertilisers.
With threats including tar sands expansion, pipelines, mining, fracking, bottled water plants, climate change and agricultural run-off
, the report concludes that without government action, more and more drinking water advisories will follow.