is very rare if one is careful while injecting.
In literature we were able to find few case reports of complications relating to air injection during PCNL, for example, air embolism
in which Parikh et al.17 used 40 ml of intermittent boluses of air in multiple punctures.
 The aim of anaesthetic management in such patients is to prevent myocardial depression, to maintain adequate saturation, to prevent the occurrence of air embolism
and to prevent other complications such as thrombosis, haemorrhage, infective endocarditis, and paradoxical embolism.
To the Editor: Air embolism
is a well-recognized complication during surgery.
On the other hand, side effects such as extravasations, air embolism
and allergic reactions to contrast media might restrain the market growth.
Enteric fistulas can cause air embolism
, and air passing from the enteric area to the aorta can also penetrate the thrombus.
Although RHC is generally safe, serious adverse events, such as bleeding at the site of vascular access, pneumothorax, arrhythmia, myocardial, vessel, or valve rupture, thromboembolism, infections, and air embolism
, can occur during the procedure (2).
It becomes an utmost important issue if the armboard is draped to prevent blood loss and air embolism
as ingress of air can cause air embolism
It should be noted that the HBOT is considered a basic treatment for several cases most important of which are air embolism
, Carbon monoxide poisoning, and decompression sickness.
Toung, "Diagnosis and treatment of vascular air embolism
," Anesthesiology, vol.
Dialysis related cerebral air embolism
has been previously reported [3-11].
Serious complications of air embolism
were encountered in some studies that were connected with the inflation of gas into the necrotic collection to enable visualization of its cavity [16, 17, 19].