Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder characterized by inflammation and excessive mucosal secretion leading to airflow restriction and bronchial hyper responsiveness, consequently resulting in irreversible structural changes and airway remodeling
. The prevalence of asthma is increasing globally, and it is anticipated that asthma, along with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may become the third leading cause of global mortality in the near future.
These chemicals, along with those released from T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils damage the airway, cause smooth muscle contraction, stimulate inflammatory pathways, and result in airway remodeling
. Th2 cells also induce production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody which binds to mast cells and basophils to release histamine, cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and other mediators.2
Further models of "disease"-on-a-chip include modeling the effects of cigarette smoke, including inflammation, oxidative stress, airway remodeling
, and ECM deposition, using a smoking machine, as well as airway constriction in asthma and immunotherapy of cancer.
Th17 responses in chronic allergic airway inflammation abrogate regulatory T-cell-mediated tolerance and contribute to airway remodeling
. Mucosal Immunol 2013; 6: 335-346, doi: 10.1038/mi.2012.76.
Ambient airborne PM generally contains fungal spores and pollen, which have been associated with exacerbation of asthma., Exposure to ambient airborne PM was shown to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress, airway hyper-responsiveness, airway remodeling
, and exacerbation of chronic inflammation., However, other researches revealed that there was no significant association or relationship between asthma discharge rates and exposure to air pollutants (PM[sub]2.5 and O[sub]3). Therefore, there is significant controversy regarding this issue.
Pathobiologically, asthma is characterized by a complex chronic inflammation that causes airway remodeling
and hyperresponsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles.
These attacks, in turn, may lead to airway remodeling
that increases the chances of developing ACOS.
Medical device company Aerin Medical Inc reported on Tuesday the successful VIVAER Nasal Airway Remodeling
treatment (VIVAER) in over 1,000 patients suffering from nasal obstruction.
The authors speculate that the decline in lung function is attributable to the irritation that most cleaning chemicals cause on the mucous membranes lining the airways, which over time results in persistent changes in the airways and airway remodeling
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by partially reversible air-flow obstruction that is frequently ascribed to airway remodeling
. PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 [micro]m) have been associated with an increased risk of COPD, respiratory symptoms, and impaired lung function in epidemiological studies [1-3].
Airway eosinophilias are associated with the inflammatory response and likely participate in airway remodeling