We present four themes identified across the interviews relating to adverse effects from SSRIs: experiences of akathisia
, aggression and suicidality; 'out of character' behaviour; harm to relationships; and accounts of responses from the medical profession.
Linda explains: "This severe agitation is akathisia
- another sideeffect.
After taking a generic version of the drug, manufactured by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Kelly experienced depression and akathisia
, a profound motor restlessness.
There is evidence that oral fluphenazine, in the short term, increases a person's chances of experiencing extrapyramidal effects such as akathisia
(n=227, 2 RCTs, RR 3.43 CI 1.2 to 9.6, NNH 13 CI 4 to 128) and rigidity (n=227, 2 RCTs, RR 3.54 CI 1.8 to 7.1, NNH 6 CI 3 to 17).
In addition, other neurological symptoms manifest secondary to antipsychotic medication use: parkinsonism (slowed movements, decreased facial expression, resting tremor, and shuffling gait); dystonic symptoms (sustained muscle spasms that impact the neck or shoulder); and akathisia
(intense feelings of restlessness) (Breggin, 1991; Breggin & Cohen, 1999; Gualtieri & Sovner, 1989; Preston, O'Neal, & Talaga; 2000; Whitaker, 2002).
Extreme agitation is known as akathisia
, an internal unrest, turmoil or torture.
To start, neuroleptics are scientifically proven to produce two neurological disorders after long use--tardive dyskinesia and tardive akathisia
. As early as 1973, it was acknowledged by psychiatrist George Crane as a side effect.
The proposed new warnings also alert prescribers, patients, and their caregivers to the emergence of symptoms that are known to be associated with antidepressants in some patients: anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia
, hypomania, and mania.
A RESTLESS legs syndrome, known as akathisia
, is characterised by an uncontrollable desire to move the legs.
Among the most serious are extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), which include dystonic reactions, akathisia
, and parkinsonism.
Yet another paper, published in The American Journal of Psychiatry in 1964, found that major tranquilizers can "produce an acute psychotic reaction in an individual not previously psychotic." A 1975 paper described a negative effect called akathisia
, a drug-induced inability to sit still comfortably.
Several studies have reported low serum (or plasma) iron or ferritin levels in psychiatric patients who develop akathisia
during neuropleptic treatment compared with matched controls who do not develop akathisia