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However, in wholegrain wheat, most of the iron and zinc is physically contained within a single layer of cells called the aleurone layer.
[1.] Malunga NL, Peter E, Trust B (2016) Inhibition of intestinal [alpha]-glucosidase and glucose absorption by feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides from corn bran and wheat aleurone. J Nutr Metab 2016: 1932532.
Beta, "Inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucosidase and glucose absorption by feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides from corn bran and wheat aleurone," Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol.
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside are present in the pericarp and aleurone layers, and high levels of phenolic acids are found in the outer layers of the grain [1].
Hucl, "A rapid method for quantifying total anthocyanins in blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheats," Cereal Chemistry Journal, vol.
For the extraction of bran from wheat and maize, the seeds were ground in grinders, after grinding the hull and aleurone layers were separated.
Gibberellic acid enhanced synthesis and release of [alpha]-amylase and ribonuclease by isolated barley aleurone layers.
The starchy endosperm in cereals contains low levels, whereas the outer layers of the grain (pericarp, aleurone layer and germ) contain the highest levels.
Most of the phytate in corn is located within the germ, whereas in wheat and sorghum phytate is mainly found within the aleurone layers [26,27].
Although quite a few DOF family members have been functionally characterised in rice, for instance, OsDOF3 was found to be involved as a pyrimidine box binding factor in the germinated aleurone (Washio, 2003), OsDOF12 was stated to control heading date (Li et al., 2009) and OsDOF25 is reported in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Arabidopsis (Santos et al., 2012) and acts as a transcriptional activator of C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice (Zhang et al., 2015).
Delivery of prolamins to the protein storage vacuole in maize aleurone cells.
Hence, estimates of zinc in unmilled rice are reliable indicators of zinc in milled rice; this is not the case for iron, as much of the iron in the aleurone layer is lost during milling [101].