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Additionally, the method herein employed does not require direct handling of an alkyl halide or dimethyl sulfate, therefore eliminating the respective health risks.
Next, partial quaternization of the tertiaryamino-functional POSS was achieved using an alkyl halide to produce the Q-POSS.
ATRP is initiated by alkyl halides; therefore, any polymer that has a sufficiently active alkyl halide end-group could initiate ATRP to afford block copolymers.
The alkyl halide and ether mixture (1 : 1) was added in portions to the reaction mixture over a 30 min period.
A related heterogeneous reaction is that between InX X = Br,l) and an alkyl halide RX to give RIn.sup.III X.sup 2, a system extensively studied by Worrall and his co-workers.sup.1 This can be viewed as oxidative insertion into (or oxidative addition across) the C-X bond of RX, although the detailed mechanism has not been established.
The O-alkyl (2-18) derivatives were obtained in high yields on refluxing a solution of 1 in 4% methanolicNaOH with alkyl halides (ethyl bromide, butyl bromide, isobutyl bromide, pentyl bromide, hexyl bromide, heptyl chloride, octyl bromide, nonyl chloride, decyl chloride, allyl bromide, benzyl chloride, 2-iodobenzyl bromide, 3-iodobenzyl bromide, 4-iodobenzyl bromide, 2-nitrobenzyl bromide, 3-nitrobenzyl bromide and 4-nitrobenzyl bromide) and work up.