Livonian has the fewest morphological case forms of any Finnic language: eight productive case forms are usually identified (in addition to some fossilized forms, the adessive, allative
, ablative, instructive and abessive, which are "learned and reproduced" (Viitso 2012 : 22).
The Ao dialects go one step further and are universally unique in sharing a case syncretism involving not only the above-mentioned agentive and instrumental cases, but also an allative
[[[IP [NPU [NP [ng (Today)]] [U [up (particle of pause)]]] [VP [KP [NP [KP [NP [ng (father)]] [K [kg (genitive)]]] [N [ng (holiday)]]] [K [kx (allative
)]]] [VP [NP [ng [phrase omitted] (good luck)]] [V [vt ]]]]] [PU [xp|]]].
The topics include the conjugation prefixes, the dative case, and the empathy hierarchy in Sumerian; some case problems in Ugaritic; grammatical roles of agent, subject, patient, and beneficiary in Hurrian; early Canaanite and Old Aramaic case in the light of language typology; allative
in Indo-European; the problem of the ergative case in Hittite; and case markings of core arguments and alignment in Late Latin.
Languages can incorporate many other additional distinctions in their system, like the deictic distinction between proximate/distal in Tsez, (see Comrie and Polinsky 1998) or the aspectual dimension of bounded and unbounded paths (where the distinction between to and towards in English is made or between allative
and versative, again in Tsez, see Comrie and Polinsky ).
The latter is a frequent Hittite word meaning 'forehead, front' and the usual assumption has been that menahhanda is a compound of two nouns in allative
case, 'face' and 'forehead'.
refers to a type of inflection, which expresses the meaning of motion 'to', 'towards' or 'as far as'.
Lottelle ("to Lotte") contains "ein heimatliches -le/chen" ("a homey -le/chen" (18)) and the Finnish verb hirttaa ("to hang," "ein guter Hirte" ["a good shepherd"]).
The suffix -de is an allative
, indicating motion toward the preceding noun forms, which are the ultimate physical destinations of the wool registered on these tablets.
Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 first, second, third person ABE abessive ADE adessive ADJ adjective ALL allative
CLC clitic COM comitative COND conditional dINF da-infinitive EL elative ESS essive FEM female GEN genetive GER gerund ILL illative IMP imperative IMPS impersonal INE inessive JUSS jussive mINF ma-infinitive NEG negation marker PL plural POSTP postposition PRCL particle PRS present PRTV partitive PST simple past PRTCP presnt participle PTCP past participle Q question marker QUOT quotative SG singular TRM terminative TRNSL translative
Recipients as possessors may be expressed either as a dative case-marked NP or as the first object in a double object construction, while recipients as goals are expressed using a locative or allative
case marker or adposition.
Of those, 85 languages are listed as having all three spatial cases: Locative (encoding location), Allative
(encoding goal of motion), and Ablative (encoding source of motion).