As Nyamnjoh (2016: 47 and 229) presents the issue: "we are all amakwerekwere
"--all "undeserving outsiders" shaped by histories of mobility.
The flip-side of exotification is the anti-immigrant mobs in Pretoria baying for the blood of the amakwerekwere
. In the decade since the first wave of anti-immigrant violence in the townships--in the era, that is, when "Afrophobia" has become normalised--it is disingenuous to pose in expressions of shock and disbelief.
Owing to these gradations, the "Rhodes Must Fall Movement" occurred concomitantly with an upsurge on violent attacks on Black amakwerekwere
from Africa north of the Limpopo (p 114).
The May 2008 outbreak of xenophobic violence left over 60 dead; about one-third of those killed were South Africans who had ostensibly been mistakenly identified as amakwerekwere
or foreigners because of their darker skin and their inability to speak Zulu.
This is a stark contrast to slogans colloquially known as Ma-kwere-kwere or Amakwerekwere
(appellation or title or derogatory term) for the black foreigners especially from African countries.