The levels of LPS were measured as described by Emmanuel et al  using the Limulus amoebocyte
lysate assay (Xiamen Houshiji, Ltd., Xiamen, China).
The three tests commonly used to measure pyrogenicity are the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (RPT), in vivo Limulus amoebocyte
lysate (LAL) assay, and the in vitro monocyte activation test (MAT).
lysate test (LAL test): Assay used to detect and quantify the amount of endotoxin.
The endotoxin level of the purified dual-type fusion peptides was further quantified by QCL-1000 chromogenic limulus amoebocyte
lysate test (BioWhittaker) according to the manufacturer protocols.
DnaK and peptides were analysed by the Limulus amoebocyte
lysate assay (Lonza AG, Basel, Switzerland) for endotoxin contamination.
Immunocytes Hyaline amoebocyte
(3%) As with all other amoebocytes
, this small (6-9-[micro]m) cell has an irregular shape, typically displaying a large variety of pseudopodia.
The Limulus Amoebocyte
Lysate (LAL) assay has been the assay of choice for detecting circulating endotoxin in this patient population [8, 9, 15, 27] (Table 1).
(a) A limited number of full-shift samples obtained in silk mills had endotoxin levels below the lower limit of normal (0.001 EU/[m.sup.3]) by the Limulus amoebocyte
lysate assay; thus, silk workers were considered to be exposed to negligible amounts of endotoxin at work.
The search strategy included different combinations of key words such as "lipopolysaccharide", "agarose gel electrophoresis", "polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis", "mass spectrometry", "biological activity", "Limulus amoebocyte
", "tumor necrosis factor", and "toll-like receptor 4" No language limits were applied.
Detection of ocular infections: Clinical Application of the Limulus Amoebocyte
The traditional methods for pyrogen detection either require animal sacrifice for the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), or are limited to the detection of endotoxin LPS from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria (for example in the Limulus Amoebocyte
Lysat [LAL] test).