The author argues that asi+ is not an anaphoric pronoun
as previously assumed, but instead is a distal demonstrative; that apa- is not distal, but addressee oriented; and that word order in Hittite is controlled by information structure.
?Nowakow2 zasypal [NP stos ksiazek Kowalskich1 o sobie1/2] ACC-Nowaks buried NOM-pile (of) books Kowalskis' about each other 'A pile of Kowalskis' books about themselves/each other buried the Nowaks.' In examples (18a), (19a) and (20a) the anaphoric pronoun
can be bound only by the complex NP-internal binder (so the books could only concern the Kowalskis and be written by the the Kowalskis), whereas in examples (18b), (19b) and (20b), the anaphoric pronoun
can be bound by both the NP-internal binder and the fronted object (so the books could be about either the Kowalskis or the Nowaks, as Polish anaphoric binding is insensitive to the Specified Subject Condition).
The change in subject from creo (first person) to salga (third person) along with the redundancy feature of Spanish that requires adjectives to agree in person and number with their referent allows the listener to recognize Barbara (identified as the topic of the presupposition) as the grammatical subject of salga, even in the absence of an anaphoric pronoun
. In cognitive terms, the qualifier (que no creo que salga viva de la carcel) is just as much a reaction to a proposition in previous discourse as would be something along the lines of Me sorprende que salga viva de la carcel.
Tuu is the most typical anaphoric pronoun
in South Estonian, too is used in varieties with two actively-used demonstratives, and see in northern dialects and Standard Estonian.
As observed by Karttunen (1976: 374), for instance, it is possible for a nominal in the nonspecific use to be followed by a short-term anaphoric pronoun
or definite noun phrase, "provided the discourse continues in the same mode." Under either interpretation, the nominal expression in (5) can be followed by an anaphoric pronoun
(own) colleagues) Interestingly, the case paradigm for the anaphoric pronoun
represented in (9) lacks a nominative form.
Most West Semitic languages use a reflex of a basic element *[delta]V: for near deixis in the singular, as, for example, Hebrew ze (ms) < *[delta]i, Biblical Aramaic da(') and Ge'ez za (fs) < *[delta]a, while far deixis is either expressed by a suffix -k or the anaphoric pronoun
, as in BA dek (ms) and Ge'ez zeku (ms) < *[delta]ik(u), Hebrew hu(') and Old South Arabian h' / hw' (3ms anaphoric pronoun
Clackson states that Latin lacks a third-person pronoun other than the reflexive se; and that "oblique forms of the anaphoric pronoun
is, ea, id are used to supply the deficiency" (p.
(8) The anaphoric pronoun
("that, the aforementioned") is analyzed with respect to syntactic context (determination of the antecedent noun or of the pronoun, 48), and the emphatic anaphoric pronoun
(BT- or BNT-"the/that very, the/that same"; to be distinguished from the intensive personal pronoun is a newly recognized form.
The fact that preservative memory entitles us to assume sameness of referent over time is linguistically manifest in the use of anaphoric pronouns
: if we can no longer recognize and demonstrate our original demonstratum, we can use anaphoric expressions to pick it up, thereby ensuring sameness of reference--"That is a nice bird.
An attempt to use anaphoric pronouns
in pro-drop languages like Croatian or Hungarian in order to maintain such metonymic topics--the most marked or unnatural solution of the four we mention above--would yield odd results.