anchor ice


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anchor ice

n
(Physical Geography) Canadian ice that forms at the bottom of a lake or river
References in periodicals archive ?
The boundary between the floating ice shelf and the anchor ice below it is called the grounding line, and that's the line that needs to be examined when establishing how much -- and how fast -- sea levels are actually rising.
Anchor ice is thus the source of an intriguing--and ecologically important--interaction between the details of phase transitions in seawater and the morphology, materials properties, and species interactions of benthic plants and animals.
Water cooled in these areas can subsequently be advected into the anchor-ice zone where, because it is below the local freezing point, it can fuel the production of anchor ice (Hunt et al., 2003).
This subshelf water is presumably the source of supercooled water required for anchor-ice formation at McMurdo Station (Dayton, 1989; Hunt et al., 2003), although it remains unclear why, at this site, anchor ice forms only above a depth of 33 m.
As far as we know, details of the interactions of anchor ice with organisms have not been studied.
Anchor ice on organisms can disturb benthic communities by inhibiting suspension feeding or light interception by sessile organisms and foraging by motile animals.
By virtue of increasing organisms' effective area and displacement, anchor ice forming on organisms can increase the drag and acceleration reaction forces imposed by moving water (Vogel, 1994) and thereby increase the risk of damage or dislodgment (Denny, 1988).
Additionally, anchor ice can cause disturbance through the application of a buoyant force.
(1991) speculate that disturbance from anchor ice (in one or several of the forms cited above) accounts for the depth-dependent zonation and annual and decadal variation in the shallow-water benthic community at McMurdo Sound.
29 SCIENCE, Dayton describes research linking periods of rapid sponge growth to the absence of anchor ice, an accumulation of ice plates up to 2 meters wide in shallow water.
When the current flowed south to north, it swept supercooled water under the shelf, spawning production of anchor ice. But when the current came from the north, it brought warmer water that didn't encourage the ice matrices to form.