The common causes of DSD can be classified as sex chromosome variations (sex chromosome DSD), disorders of ovary development and androgen excess (46, XX DSD), and disorders of testis development and androgenization
(46, XY DSD) (1, 2).
Interestingly, studies in the rodent neonatal androgenization
model of PCOS clearly showed that early transient testosterone excess in female rats resulted in an adult phenotype characterized by several endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions .
Patients with partial AIS can have a spectrum of phenotypes from normal but infertile male to phenotypic female with some features of androgenization
, and partial AIS patients are generally the most difficult to assign into a dichotomous sex category.
Hormonal doping and androgenization
of athletes: A secret program of the German Democratic Republic government.
Danneman, "Maternal Ginseng Use Associated With Neonatal Androgenization
," JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.
Studies related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (Parker et al., 2011), androgenization
of mammals female due the large production of androgen hormones by the adrenal (Yalcinkaya et al., 1993; Ostner et al., 2003) and adrenal changes related to photoperiod were also found (Ribes et al., 1999; Schibler and Brown, 2005).
In addition, testosterone production through an alternative pathway catalyzed by other 17-(3-HSD isoenzymes may contribute to the androgenization
of these structures.
The aim of this study was to determine whether adult sexually dimorphic physical traits (like finger length ratio) relate to traits that are largely determined in utero, namely, whether reduced androgenization
in utero during fetal development influenced occurrence of female to male transsexuals (FMT) and reduced androgens in male to female transsexuals (MFT).
Supporting this subject, postnatal androgenization
has been shown to induce accelerated aging of ovarian interstitial glands and transformation of large antral into cystic follicles as common similarities between hyperandrogenized and aging rats .
According to time of presentation of androgenization
, CAH can be of classic or non classic type.
Effects of neonatal castration and androgenization
on sexual dimorphism in bone, leptin and corticosterone secretion.
Physical examination should include an assessment of androgenization
status, external genital exam including palpation of the vas, digital rectal examination, and focused lower-extremity neurologic exam.