The marked deciduousness of SDTF species, make the dry season the best time for seed dispersal of anemochorous
species (Luz & Nunes, 2013) such as E.
In the dry period, when complete scarcity of rainfall prevails, species express their full production of dry, anemochorous
fruits with small, orthodox, disposed seeds as a consequence of the end of the reproductive phase (JUSTINIANO; FREDERICKSEN, 2000; GRIZ; MACHADO, 2001).
Its manner of seed dispersion is anemochorous
(Carmo & Morellato, 2000).
Such dispersal events may be mediated by birds, as the fleshy fruits of Delarbrea are readily dispersed by medium- to large-size birds (Lowry, 1986), whereas the dry, winged fruits of the endemic Myodocarpus are strictly anemochorous
. One key factor for the diversification of Myodocarpus on New Caledonia may have been its adaptability to serpentine soils.
The range of seed mass and seed size for dispersal syndromes was greatest in anemochorous
species, whereas seed mass was greatest in autochorous species and least in barochorous species.
In tropical dry forest an important proportion of the tree flora is anemochorous
(wind-dispersed), and their seeds can reach pastures much more easily than those of zoochorous (animal dispersed) tree species.
The fruits split apart to disperse seeds into the air but they do not have characteristic adaptations usually found in anemochorous
species (Howe and Westley (1997).
We also applied the Rayleigh test (Zar, 1999) to assess whether the anemochorous
, autochorous and zoochorous species fruit uniformly throughout the year.
These variables are clonality (yes, no), pollination model (wind, insects, water), dispersal syndrome (anemochorous
, hydrochorous, zoochorous and others that include barochorous, balistochorous, etc.), linking to moist soils (yes, no), seed size (very small if < 1 mm, small between 1-3 mm, medium between 3-5 mm, large between 5-10 mm and very large if > 10 mm), linking to disturbed habitats (yes, no), salinity tolerance (yes, no) and longevity (annual, perennial).
Available information from several Neotropical regions indicate that during the dry season the number of species with anemochorous
or autochorous diaspores is higher, while species with zoochorous diaspores seem to produce them most often in the rainy season (Morellato et al., 1990; Ibarra-Manriquez et al., 1991, 2001; Batalha and Mantovani, 2000; Batalha and Martins, 2004).
) An ecological term which denotes a plant, such as milkweed, with seeds distributed by wind.
Givnish's enhanced version of Darwin's hypothesis of island arborescence, namely a lack of competition from trees on islands accessible chiefly to herbaceous and anemochorous
colonists, invoking the influence of now-extinct flightless geese and ducks on the less ancient Hawaiian islands and the role of secondary endozoochory in favoring isolation and speciation via limited dispersal, is another.