In view of the presence of overt SBB and patient's clinical stability, an abdominal CT angiography (CTA) was performed; it showed multiple, large, and engorged mesenteric vessels in the right lower quadrant suggestive of a large angiodysplasia
. Therapeutic angiography revealed active bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation; hemostasis was achieved after coil embolization of the ileocolic branch.
These are supposed to be related to the incomplete absorption of NOAC in upper GI tract resulting in high availability of Dabigatran in the lower GI tract which affects the mucosa leading to bleeding, especially in the presence of lesions like erosions, angiodysplasia
, telangiectasia or tumor angiogenesis [15, 16].
Vascular lasers are being used to treat a bleeding disorder of the colon known as angiodysplasia
. Cautious exploration of laser-and light-based treatments should be further explored as a means of sparing tissue and surgical morbidity."
Some of the most common reasons for UGIB include peptic ulcers, erosive esophagitis/gastritis/duodenitis, portal hypertensive gastropathy, angiodysplasia
, esophagogastric varices, polyps, malignancy and Mallory-Weiss syndrome.
Genetically induced oxidative stress in mice causes thrombocytosis, splenomegaly and placental angiodysplasia
that leads to recurrent abortion.
Our results with lower gastrointestinal endoscopy Endoscopic diagnosis Number Percentage (%) Normal 354 40.6 Colorectal cancer 29 3.3 Colorectal polyp 150 17.2 Hemorrhoidal disease 191 21.9 Diverticular disease 67 7.7 Colitis Nonspecific colitis 68 7.8 Ulcerative colitis 33 3.7 Crohn disease 9 1 Ischemic colitis 1 0.1 Anal polyp 11 1.2 Anal fissure 46 5.2 Perianal fistula 10 1.1 Solitary rectal ulcer 5 0.5 Anastomotic ulcer 1 0.1 Rectal prolapse 1 0.1 Angiodysplasia
1 0.1 Parasites 1 0.1 Table 3.
Common causes of lower gastrointestinal bleed include diverticulosis, ischemia, hemorrhoids, neoplasia, angiodysplasia
, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Among elderly patients with severe AS, 75.6% were symptomatic, and 40.5% of these patients were not treated surgically.GI bleeds in patients with severe AS are usually associated with angiodysplasia
. Association between aortic stenosis (AS) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding attributed to intestinal angiodysplasia
has been termed Heyde's syndrome .
In addition, 23.8% (10/42) had associated GI disease; of these, 30% (3/10) reported ulcer and 10% (1/10) angiodysplasia
, while none reported portal hypertension.
EBL is an effective, safe, and widely used treatment for gastroesophageal varices; bleeding of cirrhosis; vessel disorders related to bleeding, such as Dieulafoy's ulcer or gastric angiodysplasia
; and excision of small gastrointestinal stromal tumours .
Otherwise, the most common findings were angiodysplasia
and minor nonspecific inflammatory changes (erythema, villous changes, aphthous ulcers, and edema) (Table 4).
His medical history included hypertension, coronary artery disease, an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding by angiodysplasia
in 2015, and pulmonary embolism in 2013.