The most common, "better matrix," is the disaccharide sugar trehalose, which is naturally occurring and in fact is produced and used by a number of organisms which can survive dessication ("anhydrobiosis
"), such as tardigrades.
Lorena Rebecchi (Universite di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Modena, Italy) presented an emerging alternative model organism for biomedical research, the tardigrade (water bear) that survives freezing, high temperatures, irradiation, vacuum of outer space, and complete desiccation (losing 97% of body water) owing to reversible suspension of its metabolism called anhydrobiosis
. This involves a DNA--associating protein (Dsup) and specific intrinsically disordered proteins (TDPs).
in nematodes: Evaporative water loss and survival.
Tunnacliffe, "Modeling anhydrobiosis
: activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK by dehydration in both human cells and nematodes," Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A Ecological Genetics and Physiology, vol.
Terrestrial species occur in mosses, lichens, liverworts, and leaf litter, and are renowned for their ability to enter a cryptobiotic state (anhydrobiosis
) in response to desiccation.
This species is a good example of anhydrobiosis
(life with no water).
, that is, the capability of surviving prolonged periods of dessication, a better resistance to dryness conditions was obtained by increasing the intracellular trehalose levels in animal cells ; in this way, proteins and membranes were protected from denaturation .