As whiteness became equated with citizenship, obsessions with skin colour and racial purity crystallised in disturbing ways, such as the establishment of the Ku Klux Klan, the continued animalisation
of African Americans and repeated condemnations of miscegenation.
Cristina Mazzoni establishes that social discourses of maternity have conventionally inscribed the gestating body in two reductive and passive forms: abundant, fecund and nurturing maternity and its "flipside" of animalisation
and objectification (94-95).
of the Scots is clearly further reinforced by the introduction of the word 'toad.' However, at the same time, there is a certain irony in the fact that when this English character expresses her racist contempt towards the Scots she should be twisting Johnson's words (and more importantly the English language) thus committing the worst possible crime against 'the great lawgiver', and proving that English people's linguistic skills are not necessarily superior to that of the Scots, as they generally tended to assume.
This view on anthropomorphism--a dangerous and reductive projection of human characteristics onto animal subjects proposes that to humanise animals is a colonising gesture, which superficially appears to close the species divide while it further clouds the ability to see animals as and for themselves; and allows in reversal for the merciless animalisation
of humans (Levinas in Fudge 2002: 7).
This image is evocative of protests outside Miss America pageants (and Adams' book cover for The Sexual Politics of Meat), where protesters challenged the animalisation
of contestants, reappropriating the cuts diagram to reflect the bodily fragmentation of women (Fig.2).
Nana est la cause de l'"animalisation
" du compte Muffat, l'aristocrate Michele de Burne a la capacite de sortir a la surface de ses admirateurs le cote animal: "Il avait envie de tomber a ses pieds, de s'y rouler, de mordre sa robe, de cirer quelque chose" (Maupassant, Notre coeur, 103).
Faute de rabattre ces guignols a coups de sarcasmes ou de batons, leurs impitoyables pourfendeurs s'en remettent a leur animalisation
. Ainsi, forts de leur exceptionnalite humaine, ils maintiennent sur eux leur ascendance.
the essence of the human'" (91), Vint here performs a series of excellent readings of texts by Le Guin, Bob Olsen, Alice Sheldon, Cordwainer Smith, Harlan Ellison, and Leigh Kennedy, concluding that "[r]ather than fearing a further animalisation
of women by making common cause with those interested in animal welfare ...
The contemporary contextual moment might now be different, but the exploitation and animalisation
of people like Domingas have not been left behind, it has only been re-systematised afresh in the terms of Latin American postmodernity.
The fast food industry, whose production and retail strategy seems to be modelled on factory farming, is the best example of this, and there is perhaps no better proof of the seamless link between the maltreatment of animals and the animalisation