Among all tested samples, the highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane (H001) and methanol (M001) fractions, which were better than synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxy anisole
was evaluated due to its structural similarity to 1,4-DMB.
Furthermore, it is known that synthetic antioxidants used in industries such as butyl hydroxy anisole
(BHA), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), tercbutil- hydroquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PG), show up toxic and carcinogenic effects in animal experiments (Andrade, Cardoso, Batista, Mallet, & Machado, 2012).
In food industry, synthetic antioxidants such as tetra-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butyl hydroxyl anisole
(BHA) and butyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT) are used to prevent lipid per oxidation, because being less expensive.
Although synthetic antioxidants such as Butylated hydroxyl anisole
(BHA), Tertiary-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), and Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) are in use, concerns against synthetic substances have not been dissipated.
Butytated hydroxyl anisole
(BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) were employed as positive controls.
We specifically focus on how the biomass-derived oxygenates ethanol, isobutanol, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), anisole
, 4-methylanisole (4-MA), 2,4-xylenol, and 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) impact fuel properties, as well as knock-limited spark advance and PM emissions from a single cylinder DISI engine.
Solvents used were as follows: tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane from Aldrich, toluene and diethyl ether (as precipitation agent) from Chimopar SA, anisole
from Merck-Schuchardt, diphenyl ether (DPE) from Fluka-AG, and methanol from SC PAM Corporation SRL.
What's new: First cooperage in the world to offer full testing of all anisole
and haloanisoles in completed barrels to avoid TCA.
N,N,N',N'" N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA, Aldrich, 99%), ethyl alpha-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB, Aldrich, 97%), alpha-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB, Aldrich, 97%), anisole
(Aldrich, 99%), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES, Sigma-Aldrich, 99%), AVV'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC, Aldrich, 99%), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, Aldrich.
Apart from this, several synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl anisole
(BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), Propylgallate (PG) and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) are commercially available.
Interestingly, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) in negative ion mode was applied successfully for analysis of TBBP-A in circuit board and orange peel samples using anisole
as spraying solvent.