The drive for hunger is stimulated by the orexigenic hormone ghrelin whereas satiety is stimulated by anorexigenic
hormones including peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP).
Aim of this study is investigation antioxidant effects of nesfatin-1, which is newly defined anorexigenic
hormones, closely related to diabetes, obesity, anorexia, nervosa, psychiatric disorders and neurogenic diseases, on cell viability in AD model that is formed in astrocyte cells with amyloid Beta (A[beta]).
Nesfatin-1 is a novel 82-amino acid anorexigenic
peptide derived from the precursor peptide nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) in hypothalamic nuclei.
Of these mechanisms, blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin (hunger hormone), while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in anorexigenic
2007) demonstrated that central insulin was as an appetite-suppressive peptide in chicken central nervous system, and this anorexigenic
action was mediated by POMC and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Tanycytes also transport the blood-borne anorexigenic
peptide leptin from the blood to the CSF and brain parenchyma.
Some neurons are orexigenic and stimulate or increase appetite, while others are anorexigenic
and suppress appetite by promoting satiety.
The underlying mechanism may be dysregulation of "hunger-hormones" because the levels of the anorexigenic
hormone leptin have been negatively associated with sleep deprivation (Chaput et al.
Van Den Pol, "Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic
proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Melanocortin-4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are responsible for the anorexigenic
response (loss of appetite) to increasing leptin levels; however, other pathways have also been implicated since MC4R knockout mouse models showed only moderate obesity (Robinson et al.
Amylin is a peptide hormone with both glucose-regulatory and anorexigenic
In studies on nesfatin and exercise, it has been reported that heavy, continuous physical exercise compresses/reinforces orexigenic (AgRP, NPY, and ghrelin) and anorexigenic
peptide/protein (obestatin, leptin, POMS, CART, and visfatin) secretion and concentration in central and peripheral tissues (3-6).